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Holy Crown Of Hungary
The HOLY CROWN OF HUNGARY (Hungarian : Szent Korona, also known as the CROWN OF SAINT STEPHEN ) was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
Hungarian Crown
(sometimes the Sacra Corona meant the Land, the Carpathian Basin, but it also meant the coronation body, too). No king of Hungary
Hungary
was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary
Hungary
, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV , in 1916 (the two kings who were not so crowned were John II Sigismund and Joseph II ). The enamels on the crown are mainly or entirely Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople
Constantinople
in the 1070s
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Coat Of Arms Of Hungary
The current COAT OF ARMS OF HUNGARY was reinstated on July 3, 1990, after the end of communist rule. The arms have been used before, both with and without the Holy Crown of Hungary
Hungary
, sometimes as part of a larger, more complex coat of arms, and its elements date back to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The shield is split into two parts: * The dexter (left side from the viewer's point) features the so-called Árpád stripes , four Argent (silver) and four Gules (red) stripes. Traditionally, the silver stripes represent four rivers: Duna (Danube), Tisza
Tisza
, Dráva , and Száva
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Hungarian Language
HUNGARIAN is the official language of Hungary
Hungary
and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Outside Hungary
Hungary
it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries (especially in Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
), and by Hungarian diaspora
Hungarian diaspora
communities worldwide. Like Finnish and Estonian , it belongs to the Uralic language family , its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty . It is the most widely-spoken of the several European languages
European languages
not part of the Indo-European family . The Hungarian name for the language is _magyar_ or _magyar nyelv_ ( listen (help ·info ))
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Stephen I Of Hungary
STEPHEN I, also known as KING SAINT STEPHEN (Hungarian : Szent István király; Latin : Sanctus Stephanus; Slovak : Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; c. 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary
King of Hungary
from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975 in Esztergom
Esztergom
. At his birth, he was given the pagan name VAJK. The date of his baptism is unknown. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, Sarolt , who was descended from the prominent family of the gyulas . Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian. He married Gisela of Bavaria
Bavaria
, a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty
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Coronation Crown
A CORONATION CROWN is a crown used by a monarch when being crowned . In some monarchies, monarchs have or had a number of crowns for different occasions, such as a coronation crown for the moment of coronation and a state crown for general usage in state ceremonial. FAMOUS CORONATION CROWNS * 1877 Papal Tiara - used to crown Popes Pius XII and John XXIII ; * St. Edward\'s Crown - traditional English then British coronation crown. The current St. Edward's Crown has been used a number of coronations since the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, but not, in fact the majority. The monarchs crowned with St. Edward's Crown were Charles II (1661), James II (1685), William III (1689), George V (1911), George VI (1937) and Elizabeth II (1953). King Edward VII intended to be crowned with St
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Kingdom Of Hungary
The KINGDOM OF HUNGARY was a monarchy in Central Europe
Central Europe
that existed from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom
Esztergom
in about the year 1000; his family (the Árpád dynasty ) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world . Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary
Hungary
in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary
Hungary
, Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania

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Lands Of The Hungarian Crown
The "LANDS OF THE HUNGARIAN CROWN" were the territories that the King of Hungary
King of Hungary
ruled nominally or absolutely. They are distinct from the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
, which denominates the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
Lands of the Hungarian Crown
as a constituent part of the territory of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
during the totality of the subordination of Hungary to Austria-Hungary, from 30 March 1867 - 16 November 1918. Therefore the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
Lands of the Hungarian Crown
constituted part of the later Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
(from 1867-1918). MIDDLE AGES Holy Crown of Hungary
Holy Crown of Hungary
St. King Ladislaus I used the title of "King of Slavonia" in 1091 (?)
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History Of Hungary
HUNGARY is a country in Central Europe
Central Europe
whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, when the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
was conquered by the Hungarians
Hungarians
(Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe. For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary
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Charles I Of Austria
CHARLES I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
. He was the last Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
, the last King of Hungary (as CHARLES IV), and the last monarch belonging to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine . After his uncle Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914 , Charles became the designated successor of the Emperor Franz Josef . Charles I reigned from 1916 until 1918, when he "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. He spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922. Following his beatification by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in 2004, within Catholic circles he is commonly known as BLESSED KARL OF AUSTRIA
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John II Sigismund
JOHN SIGISMUND ZáPOLYA or SZAPOLYAI (Hungarian : Szapolyai János Zsigmond; 7 July 1540 – 14 March 1571) was King of Hungary
King of Hungary
as JOHN II from 1540 to 1551, and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
from 1570 to his death. He was the only son of John I , King of Hungary, and Isabella of Poland . John I ruled parts of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
, with the support of the Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan
Suleiman ; the remaining areas were ruled by Ferdinand I , who also claimed Hungary. The two kings concluded a peace treaty in 1538 acknowledging Ferdinand's right to reunite Hungary after John I's death, but shortly after John Sigismund's birth, and on his deathbed, John I bequeathed his realm to his son. The late king's staunchest supporters elected the infant John Sigismund king, but he was not crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary
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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
JOSEPH II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and her husband, Emperor Francis I , and was the brother of Marie Antoinette . He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine , styled Habsburg-Lorraine . Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism ; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia , as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province ,
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Michael VII Doukas
MICHAEL VII DOUKAS or DUKAS/DUCAS (Greek Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakēs (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Usurpers * 3 Family * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 Primary sources * 8 External links LIFEMichael VII was born c. 1050 in Constantinople
Constantinople
, the eldest son of Constantine X Doukas and Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Eudokia Makrembolitissa
. He was associated with his father on the throne late in 1059, together with or shortly before his newly born brother Konstantios Doukas . When Constantine X died in 1067, Michael VII was 17 years old and should have been able to rule by himself
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Géza I Of Hungary
GéZA I (Hungarian pronunciation: ; Hungarian : I. Géza; c. 1040 – 25 April 1077) was King of Hungary
King of Hungary
from 1074 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Béla I . His baptismal name was MAGNUS. When his father died in 1063, Géza's cousin Solomon acquired the crown with German assistance, forcing Géza to leave Hungary. Géza returned with Polish reinforcements and signed a treaty with Solomon in early 1064. In the treaty, Géza and his brother, Ladislaus acknowledged the rule of Solomon, who granted them their father's former duchy , which encompassed one-third of the Kingdom of Hungary. Géza closely cooperated with Solomon, but their relationship became tense from 1071. The king invaded the duchy in February 1074 and defeated Géza in a battle. However, Géza was victorious at the decisive battle of Mogyoród on 14 March 1074
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Monomachus Crown
The MONOMACHUS CROWN (Hungarian : Monomakhosz-korona) is a piece of engraved Byzantine
Byzantine
goldwork, decorated with cloisonné enamel, in the Hungarian National Museum
Hungarian National Museum
in Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary
Hungary
. It consists of seven gold plates depicting Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus
Constantine IX Monomachus
, his wife Zoe , her sister Theodora , two dancers and two allegorical figures . The piece has puzzling aspects that have long made it the subject of scholarly debate; it was probably made in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1042. It was unearthed in 1860 by a farmer in what is now called Ivanka pri Nitre in Slovakia
Slovakia
, then Nyitraivánka in Hungary
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Hungarian National Museum
The HUNGARIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM (Hungarian: Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum) was founded in 1802 and is the national museum for the history, art and archaeology of Hungary, including areas not within Hungary's modern borders such as Transylvania
Transylvania
; it is not to be confused with the collection of international art of the Hungarian National Gallery . The museum is in Budapest
Budapest
VIII in a purpose-built Neoclassical building from 1837–47 by the architect Mihály Pollack . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Exhibitions * 3 Building * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY The main stairway The Hungarian National Museum
Hungarian National Museum
traces its foundation to 1802 when Count Ferenc Széchényi set up the National Széchényi Library. This would then be followed a year later by the donating of a mineral collection by Széchényi's wife
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