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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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1st Millennium BC
The 1st millennium
1st millennium
BC encompasses the Iron Age
Iron Age
and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC. The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
develops, followed by the Achaemenids. In Greece, Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The early Celts
Celts
dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Scythians
Scythians
dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism
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Age (geology)
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage.See also[edit] List of geochronologic names References[edit]^ Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.; Gibbard, P.L
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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International Commission On Stratigraphy
The International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale
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Recorded History
Recorded history
Recorded history
or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication. It contrasts with other narratives of the past, such as mythological, oral or archeological traditions. For broader world history, recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC, and coincides with the invention of writing. For some geographic regions or cultures, written history is limited to a relatively recent period in human history because of the limited use of written records. Moreover, human cultures do not always record all of the information relevant to later historians, such as the full impact of natural disasters or the names of individuals; thus, recorded history for particular types of information is limited based on the types of records kept
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Lithosphere
A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. The study of past and current formations of landscapes is called geomorphology.Contents1 Earth's lithosphere1.1 History of the concept 1.2 Types1.2.1 Oceanic lithosphere 1.2.2 Subducted lithosphere2 Mantle xenoliths 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarth's lithosphere Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates
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Ecosystem
An ecosystem can be defined as a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water and mineral soil.[2] However, ecosystems can be defined in many ways.[3] The biotic and abiotic components interact through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[4] Ecosystems include a network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment.[5] Ecosystems can be of any size but one ecosystem has a specific, limited space.[6] Some scientists view the entire planet as one ecosystem.[7] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems comes primarily from the sun, through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Animals also play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through ecoystems. They influence the amount of plant and microbial biomass that lives in the system
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Atmosphere
An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere'[1][2]) is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays
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Absolute Dating
Absolute dating
Absolute dating
is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy.[1][2] Absolute dating
Absolute dating
provides a numerical age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates (coins and written history)
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Llanquihue Glaciation
The last glacial period and its associated glaciation is known in southern Chile
Chile
as the Llanquihue glaciation
Llanquihue glaciation
(Spanish: Glaciación de Llanquihue).[1] Its type area lies west of Llanquihue Lake
Llanquihue Lake
where various drifts or end moraine systems belonging to the last glacial period have been identified.[2][A] The glaciation is the last episode of existence of the Patagonian Ice Sheet. The preceding interglacial is known as the Valdivia
Valdivia
interglacial after its type locality of Valdivia.[4]Contents1 General characteristics 2 Development of the glaciation2.1 Last Glacial Maximum 2.2 Deglaciation3 Notes 4 ReferencesGeneral characteristics[edit]View of Llanquihue Lake
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Period (geology)
A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.Contents1 Structure 2 Correlation issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
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Piacenzian
The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene. It spans the time between 3.6 ± 0.005 Ma and 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago). The Piacenzian is after the Zanclean and is followed by the Gelasian (part of the Pleistocene). The Piacenzian is roughly coeval with the European land mammal age MN 16, overlaps the late Chapadmalalan and early Uquian South American land mammal age and falls inside the more extensive Blancan North American land mammal age. It also correlates with the Astian, Redonian, Reuverian and Romanian regional stages of Europe
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Stage (stratigraphy)
In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition. A given stage of rock and the corresponding age of time will by convention have the same name, and the same boundaries. Rock series are divided into stages, just as geological epochs are divided into ages. Stages can be divided into smaller stratigraphic units called chronozones
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Glacial
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago.[1] The Holocene
Holocene
epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state.[2][3][4]Look up glaciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Contents1 Quaternary ice age 2 Last glacial period 3 Next glacial period 4 See also 5 ReferencesQuaternary ice age[edit] Main articles: Quaternary glaciation
Quaternary glaciation
and timeline of glaciationGlacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2, measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years. The stage names are part of the North American and the European Alpine subdivisions
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