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Holiness Movement
The Holiness movement
Holiness movement
involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged from 19th-century Methodism. A number of Evangelical
Evangelical
Christian denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements emphasize those beliefs as central doctrine. The movement is Wesleyan-Arminian in theology,[1] and is defined by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of a second work of grace leading to Christian
Christian
perfection
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Monophysitism
Monophysitism
Monophysitism
(/məˈnɒfɪsaɪtɪzəm/ or /məˈnɒfɪsɪtɪzəm/; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek [monofysitizˈmos] from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human
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Chalcedonian Definition
The Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed) was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in AD 451. Chalcedon
Chalcedon
was an early centre of Christianity located in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(modern Turkey). The council was the fourth of the Ecumenical Councils that are accepted by Chalcedonian churches which include the Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, and most Protestant
Protestant
churches. It was the first council not to be recognised by any Oriental Orthodox church; these churches may be classified as non-Chalcedonian. The definition defines that Christ is "acknowledged in two natures", which "come together into one person and one hypostasis"
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Book Of Concord
The Book of Concord
Book of Concord
or Concordia (often, Lutheran Confessions is appended to or substituted for the title) (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism
Lutheranism
since the 16th century. They are also known as the symbolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.[1] The Book of Concord
Book of Concord
was published in German on June 25, 1580 in Dresden, the fiftieth anniversary of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg. The authoritative Latin
Latin
edition was published in 1584 in Leipzig.[2] Those who accept it as their doctrinal standard recognize it to be a faithful exposition of the Bible
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Indulgence
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins."[1] It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death (as opposed to the eternal punishment merited by mortal sin), in the state or process of purification called Purgatory. The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church
describes an indulgence as "a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed ga
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Philip Melanchthon
Philip Melanchthon[a] (born Philipp Schwartzerdt;[b] 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran
Lutheran
reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and John Calvin
John Calvin
as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. After Luther himself, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism.[1] Melanchthon along with Luther denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, and denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, which they believed could not offer certainty of salvation
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Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
(Greek: Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359)[1] was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period. A monk of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
(modern Greece) and later archbishop of Thessaloniki, he is famous for his defense of hesychast spirituality, the uncreated character of the light of the Transfiguration, and the distinction between God's essence and energies (i.e., the divine will, divine grace, etc.). His teaching unfolded over the course of three major controversies, (1) with the Italo-Greek Barlaam between 1336 and 1341, (2) with the monk Gregory Akindynos between 1341 and 1347, and (3) with the philosopher Gregoras, from 1348 to 1355
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Anselm Of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury[a] (/ˈænsɛlm/), also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
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Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalvte Scholasticism
Scholasticism
was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis presupposed upon a Latin Christian theistic paradigm which dominated teaching in the medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700. It originated within the Christian monastic schools that were the basis of the earliest European universities.[1] The rise of scholasticism was closely associated with the rise of these 12th and 13th century schools that flourished in Italy, France, Spain
Spain
and England.[2] Scholasticism
Scholasticism
is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is also known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions
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Photios I Of Constantinople
Photios I (Greek: Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), [a] also spelled Photius[3] (/ˈfoʊʃəs/) or Fotios, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 858 to 867 and from 877 to 886;[4] He is recognized in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as St. Photios the Great. Photios is widely regarded as the most powerful and influential church leader of Constantinople
Constantinople
subsequent to John Chrysostom's archbishopric around the turn of the fifth century
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Alcuin
Alcuin
Alcuin
of York
York
(/ˈælkwɪn/;[1] Latin: Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; c. 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop Ecgbert at York. At the invitation of Charlemagne, he became a leading scholar and teacher at the Carolingian
Carolingian
court, where he remained a figure in the 780s and '90s. Alcuin
Alcuin
wrote many theological and dogmatic treatises, as well as a few grammatical works and a number of poems. He was made Abbot of Tours
Tours
in 796, where he remained until his death. "The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne[2] (ca. 817-833), he is considered among the most important architects of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance
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Christian Theology
Christian
Christian
theology is the theology of Christian
Christian
belief and practice.[1] Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament
Old Testament
and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian
Christian
theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument
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Augustine Of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism
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Patristics
Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers. The names derive from the combined forms of Latin pater and Greek patḗr (father). The period is generally considered to run from the end of New Testament
New Testament
times or end of the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
(c. AD 100) to either AD 451 (the date of the Council of Chalcedon)[1] or to the 8th-century Second Council of Nicaea.Contents1 Key persons 2 Key theological developments 3 Eras of the church fathers 4 Locations 5 Obstacles to 21st-century understanding 6 Patrologia vs
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Athanasian Creed
The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed
Creed
or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. The Latin
Latin
name of the creed, Quicunque vult, is taken from the opening words, "Whosoever wishes". The creed has been used by Christian churches since the sixth century. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity
Trinity
is explicitly stated
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Predestination
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.[1] Explanations of predestination often seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will
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