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Holding Company
A HOLDING COMPANY is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock . The term usually refers to a company that does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group . Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States , 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed. That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially Company A transferring cash from one company to the other. Any other shareholders of Company B will pay the usual taxes on dividends, as they are legitimate and ordinary dividends to these shareholders . Sometimes a company intended to be a pure holding company identifies itself as such by adding "Holding" or "Holdings" to its name. CONTENTS* 1 United States * 1.1 Banking * 1.2 Utilities * 1.3 Broadcasting * 1.4 Personal holding company * 2 Parent company * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links UNITED STATESBANKING Further information: bank holding company After the financial crisis of 2007–08 , many U.S. investment banks converted to holding companies
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Big Brother And The Holding Company
BIG BROTHER AND THE HOLDING COMPANY is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco
San Francisco
in 1965 as part of the same psychedelic music scene that produced the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
, Quicksilver Messenger Service , and Jefferson Airplane . They are best known as the band that featured Janis Joplin as their lead singer. Their 1968 album Cheap Thrills is considered one of the masterpieces of the psychedelic sound of San Francisco; it reached number one on the Billboard charts , and was ranked number 338 in Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
's the 500 greatest albums of all time . The album is also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Company (law)
A COMPANY, abbreviated CO., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural , legal , or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company
Company
members share a common purpose and unite in order to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals . Companies take various forms such as: * Voluntary associations which may include nonprofit organization * A group of soldiers * Business
Business
entities with an aim of gaining a profit * Financial entities and banks A company or association of persons can be created at law as legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail) to discharge their duty within the publicly declared "birth certificate" or published policy . Because companies are legal persons, they also may associate and register themselves as companies – often known as a corporate group . When the company closes it may need a "death certificate" to avoid further legal obligations
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Shares Outstanding
SHARES OUTSTANDING are all the shares of a corporation or financial asset that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them. They have rights and represent ownership in the corporation by the person who holds the shares. They are distinguished from treasury shares , which are shares held by the corporation itself and have no exercisable rights. Shares outstanding plus treasury shares together amount to the number of issued shares . Shares outstanding can be calculated as either basic or fully diluted. The basic count is the current number of shares. Dividend distributions and voting in the general meeting of shareholders are calculated according to this number. The fully diluted shares outstanding count, on the other hand, includes diluting securities, such as warrants , capital notes or convertibles . If the company has any diluting securities, this indicates the potential future increased number of shares outstanding. CONTENTS* 1 Finding the number of shares outstanding * 1.1 Public traded companies\' investor relations * 1.2 Authorized information service * 1.3 Local stock exchanges * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links FINDING THE NUMBER OF SHARES OUTSTANDINGThe number of outstanding shares may change due to changes in the number of issued shares as well as the change in treasury shares. Both can occur at any time of the year
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Corporate Group
A CORPORATE GROUP or GROUP OF COMPANIES is a collection of parent and subsidiary corporations that function as a single economic entity through a common source of control. The concept of a group is frequently used in tax law , accounting and (less frequently) company law to attribute the rights and duties of one member of the group to another or the whole. If the corporations are engaged in entirely different businesses, the group is called a conglomerate . The forming of corporate groups usually involves consolidation via mergers and acquisitions , although the group concept focuses on the instances in which the merged and acquired corporate entities remain in existence rather than the instances in which they are dissolved by the parent. The group may be owned by a holding company which may have no actual operations. In Germany, where a sophisticated law of the "concern " has been developed, the law of corporate groups is a fundamental aspect of its corporate law . Many other European jurisdictions also have a similar approach, while Commonwealth
Commonwealth
countries and the United States
United States
adhere to a formalistic doctrine that refuses to "pierce the corporate veil ": corporations are treated outside tax and accounting as wholly separate legal entities
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Risk
RISK is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. Values (such as physical health , social status , emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty . Uncertainty is a potential, unpredictable, and uncontrollable outcome; risk is a consequence of action taken in spite of uncertainty. Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity and probability of a risk, and may vary person to person. Any human endeavor carries some risk, but some are much riskier than others
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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Tax
A TAX (from the Latin _taxo_) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or a legal entity ) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, or evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public/common/agreed national needs and government functions: some levy a flat percentage rate of taxation on personal annual income, some on a scale based on annual income amounts, and some countries impose almost no taxation at all, or a very low tax rate for a certain area of taxation. Some countries charge a tax both on corporate income and dividends ; this is often referred to as double taxation as the individual shareholder(s) receiving this payment from the company will also be levied some tax on that personal income
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Dividends Received Deduction
The DIVIDENDS-RECEIVED DEDUCTION (or "DRD"), under U.S. federal income tax law , is a tax deduction received by a corporation on the dividends it receives by other corporations in which it has an ownership stake. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Impact * 3 Application * 4 Limitations * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (June 2008)IMPACTThis deduction is designed to reduce the consequences of triple taxation . Otherwise, corporate profits would be taxed to the corporation that earned them, then to the corporate shareholder, and then to the individual shareholder. While Congress allowed for double taxation on corporations, it did not intend a triple - and potentially infinitely-tiered - tax to apply to corporate profits at every level of their distribution. The dividends-received deduction complements the consolidated return regulations, which allow affiliated corporations to file a single consolidated return for U.S. federal income tax purposes. APPLICATIONGenerally, if a corporation receives dividends from another corporation, it is entitled to a deduction of 70 percent of the dividend it receives. If the corporation receiving the dividend owns 20 percent or more, however, then the amount of the deduction increases to 80 percent
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Dividend
A DIVIDEND is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders , usually as a distribution of profits . When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business (called retained earnings ) and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash (usually a deposit into a bank account) or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan , the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase . A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share, with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. For the joint-stock company , paying dividends is not an expense ; rather, it is the division of after tax profits among shareholders. Retained earnings (profits that have not been distributed as dividends) are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet – the same as its issued share capital. Public companies usually pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends. Cooperatives , on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are often considered to be a pre-tax expense. The word "dividend" comes from the Latin word "_dividendum_" ("thing to be divided")
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Shareholder
A SHAREHOLDER or STOCKHOLDER is an individual or institution (including a corporation ) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation . Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. Legally, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation until his or her name and other details are entered in the register of shareholders. Shareholders of a corporation are legally separate from the corporation itself. They are generally not liable for the debts of the corporation; and the shareholders' liability for company debts are said to be limited to the unpaid share price, unless if a shareholder has offered guarantees. DESCRIPTIONShareholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock. The board of directors of a corporation generally governs a corporation for the benefit of shareholders
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Bank Holding Company
A BANK HOLDING COMPANY is a company that controls one or more banks , but does not necessarily engage in banking itself. CONTENTS* 1 United States * 1.1 Regulation * 1.2 Bank
Bank
holding company status * 1.3 2008 credit crisis * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links UNITED STATESIn the United States, a BANK HOLDING COMPANY, as provided by the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. § 1841(a)(2)(A) et seq.), is broadly defined as "any company that has control over a bank". All bank holding companies in the US are required to register with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System . REGULATIONThe Federal Reserve Board of Governors , under Regulation Y (12 C.F.R. Pt. 225) has responsibility for regulating and supervising bank holding company activities, such as establishing capital standards , approving mergers and acquisitions and inspecting the operations of such companies. This authority applies even though a bank owned by a holding company may be under the primary supervision of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation . BANK HOLDING COMPANY STATUSBecoming a bank holding company makes it easier for the firm to raise capital than as a traditional bank
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Financial Crisis Of 2007–08
The FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2007–2008, also known as the GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS and the 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the US, and developed into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. Excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. Massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world financial system . The crisis was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn , the Great Recession . The European debt crisis , a crisis in the banking system of the European countries using the euro , followed later. The Dodd–Frank Act was enacted in the US in the aftermath of the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States". The Basel III capital and liquidity standards were adopted by countries around the world
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Public Utility Holding Company Act Of 1935
The PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 (PUHCA), also known as the WHEELER-RAYBURN ACT, was a law that was passed by the United States Congress to facilitate regulation of electric utilities , by either limiting their operations to a single state , and thus subjecting them to effective state regulation, or forcing divestitures so that each became a single integrated system serving a limited geographic area. Another purpose of PUHCA was to keep utility holding companies that were engaged in regulated businesses from engaging in unregulated businesses. On August 8, 2005, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 passed both houses of Congress and was signed into law, repealing PUHCA. CONTENTS * 1 Context * 2 Summary * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CONTEXTPUHCA was one of a number of trust-busting and securities regulation initiatives that were enacted in response to the government investigations of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and ensuing Great Depression , which included the collapse of Samuel Insull 's public utility holding company empire. By 1932, the eight largest utility holding companies controlled 73 percent of the investor-owned electric industry. Their complex, highly leveraged , corporate structures were very difficult for individual states to regulate
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Energy Policy Act Of 2005
The ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 (Pub.L. 109–58) is a bill passed by the United States Congress
United States Congress
on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico
. The act, described by proponents as an attempt to combat growing energy problems, changed US energy policy by providing tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types. The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed, effective February 2006, by the passing of this act
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