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History Of The Jews In Germany
The history of the Jews
Jews
in Germany
Germany
goes back to the Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(circa 1000–1299 CE) when Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community. The community survived under Charlemagne, but suffered during the Crusades. Accusations of well poisoning during the Black Death (1346–53) led to mass slaughter of German Jews[3] and they fled in large numbers to Poland. The Jewish communities of the cities of Mainz, Speyer
Speyer
and Worms became the center of Jewish life during Medieval times
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German Language
German (Deutsch [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, the German-speaking Community
German-speaking Community
of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‬, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition"[1][2]) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism
Judaism
is called a Mekubbal (מְקוּבָּל‬). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,[3] from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof
Ein Sof
(infinity)[4] and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia.[30][31] It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until its dissolution on 25 December 1991.[32] Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel
Israel
and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch
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Jewish Prayer
Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
(Hebrew: תְּפִלָּה‬, tefillah [tefiˈla]; plural Hebrew: תְּפִלּוֹת‬, tefillot [tefiˈlot]; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile [ˈtfɪlə], plural תּפֿלות tfilles [ˈtfɪləs]; Yinglish: davening /ˈdɑːvənɪŋ/ from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers, often with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book
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Tzedakah
Tzedakah
Tzedakah
[tsedaˈka] or Ṣ'daqah [sˤəðaːˈqaː] in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew: צדקה‎, is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity - [1] though it is a different concept from the modern English understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, where as tzedakah is an obligation. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasizes is an important part of living a spiritual life. Unlike voluntary philanthropy, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation that must be performed regardless of financial standing, even by poor people
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Brit Milah
The brit milah (Hebrew: בְּרִית מִילָה‬, pronounced [bʁit miˈla]; Ashkenazi pronunciation: [bʁis ˈmilə], "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish
Yiddish
pronunciation: bris [bʀɪs]) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life
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Jewish Views On Marriage
In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved. (Deut. 24:1) Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is traditionally expected to fulfil the commandment to have children. (Gen
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Bereavement In Judaism
Bereavement in Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: אֲבֵלוּת, avelut, mourning) is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah
Torah
and rabbinic texts
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Tanakh
Tanakh
(/tɑːˈnɑːx/;[1] תַּנַ"ךְ, pronounced [taˈnaχ] or [təˈnax]; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian
Christian
Old Testament. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text
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Halakha
Halakha (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/;[1] Hebrew: הֲלָכָה‬, Sephardic: [halaˈχa]; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) (Ashkenazic: [haˈloχo]) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah. It is based on biblical laws or "commandments" (mitzvot) (traditionally numbered as 613), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the many books, one of the most famous of which is the 16th-century Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(literally "Prepared Table"). Halakha is often translated as " Jewish
Jewish
Law", although a more literal translation might be "the way to behave" or "the way of walking". The word derives from the root that means "to behave" (also "to go" or "to walk")
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Torah
Torah
(/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta —— Amoraic (Gemara) —— Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud Babylonian Talmud —— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash —— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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