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History Of Sweden
During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden
Sweden
gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included what is today Finland. During the early Middle Ages, the Swedish state also expanded to control Norrland
Norrland
and Finland. Modern Sweden
Sweden
started out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. Vasa fought for an independent Sweden
Sweden
and broke with the papacy, establishing the Lutheran Church in Sweden. In the 17th century Sweden
Sweden
expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. Most of these conquered territories had to be given up during the 18th century. During the 17th century, after winning wars against Denmark, Russia, and Poland, Sweden
Sweden
emerged as a great power by taking direct control of the Baltic region
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Johann Baptist Homann
Johann Baptist Homann (20 March 1664 – 1 July 1724) was a German geographer and cartographer, who also made maps of the Americas. Life[edit] Homann was born in Oberkammlach near Kammlach
Kammlach
in the Electorate of Bavaria. Although educated at a Jesuit school, and preparing for an ecclesiastical career, he eventually converted to Protestantism
Protestantism
and from 1687 worked as a civil law notary in Nuremberg. He soon turned to engraving and cartography; in 1702 he founded his own publishing house. Homann acquired renown as a leading German cartographer, and in 1715 was appointed Imperial Geographer
Geographer
by Emperor Charles VI. Giving such privileges to individuals was an added right that the Holy Roman Emperor enjoyed. In the same year he was also named a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences
Prussian Academy of Sciences
in Berlin
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Prehistoric Sweden
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but writing was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even later. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently. Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
and ancient Egypt were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron
Iron
Age
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Livonia
Livonia
Livonia
(Livonian: Līvõmō, Estonian: Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Lithuanian: Livonija, Polish: Inflanty, archaic English Livland,[1] Liwlandia; Russian: Лифляндия, translit. Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Reason
Reason
or simply the Enlightenment)[1][2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".[3] Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think, therefore I am" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687). French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV
Louis XV
until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books, journals, and pamphlets
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Norway
Indigenous status:Sámi[3] Minority status:[4]Jewish Traveller Forest Finn Romani Kven Demonym(s)NorwegianGovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• Monarch Harald V• Prime Minister Erna Solberg•  President of the Storting
President of the Storting
Tone W
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Non-Aligned Movement
The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide.[1][4] Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference
Bandung Conference
in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
through an initiative of the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru[5] and the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito
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World War I
Allied victory Central Powers
Central Powers
victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of all continental empires in Europe
Europe
(inclu
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Social Welfare
Welfare
Welfare
is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for citizens and other eligible residents without sufficient current means to support basic needs. In most developed countries, welfare is mainly provided by the government from tax revenue, and to a lesser extent by NGOs, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. Social security
Social security
expands on this concept, especially in welfare states, by providing all inhabitants with various social services such as universal healthcare, unemployment insurance, student financial aid (in addition to free post-secondary education), and others. In its 1952 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention (nr
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Social Democracy
Social democracy
Social democracy
is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.[3] It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations.[4] Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna
Vienna
and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states
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Finland
Finland
Finland
(/ˈfɪnlənd/ ( listen); Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] ( listen); Swedish: Finland
Finland
[ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland)[7] is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. The country has land borders with Sweden
Sweden
to the northwest, Norway
Norway
to the north, and Russia
Russia
to the east. To the south is the Gulf of Finland
Finland
with Estonia
Estonia
on the opposite side
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Cold War
Part of a series on the History of the Cold WarOrigins of the Cold WarWorld War II(Hiroshima and Nagasaki)War conferencesEastern BlocWestern BlocIron Curtain Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953) Cold War
Cold War
(1953–1962) Cold War
Cold War
(1962–1979) Cold War
Cold War
(1979–1985) Cold War
Cold War
(1985–1991)Frozen conflictsTimeline · ConflictsHistoriography Cold War
Cold War
IIThe Cold War
Cold War
was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 (the year U.S. diplomat George F
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NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization ( NATO
NATO
/ˈneɪtoʊ/; French: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
that was signed on 4 April 1949.[3][4] NATO
NATO
constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations
Allied Command Operations
is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29
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Petroglyph
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, and are often associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek word petro-, theme of the word "petra" meaning "stone", and glyphein meaning "to carve", and was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe. The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are also quite different
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