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History Of Planetary Science
Planetary science
Planetary science
or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun
Sun
on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology. There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science
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Apollo 15
1 in cislunar space Plus 4 on the lunar surfaceEVA duration39 minutes, 7 seconds Spacewalk
Spacewalk
to retrieve film cassettesStart of missionLaunch date July 26, 1971, 13:34:00.6 (1971-07-26UTC13:34Z) UTCRocket Saturn V
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Radio Telescopes
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.[1][2][3] Radio telescopes are the main observing instrument used in radio astronomy, which studies the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by astronomical objects, just as optical telescopes are the main observing instrument used in traditional optical astronomy which studies the light wave portion of the spectrum coming from astronomical objects. Radio telescopes are typically large parabolic ("dish") antennas similar to those employed in tracking and communicating with satellites and space probes. They may be used singly or linked together electronically in an array. Unlike optical telescopes, radio telescopes can be used in the daytime as well as at night
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Robotic Spacecraft
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and lower risk factors. In addition, some planetary destinations such as Venus
Venus
or the vicinity of Jupiter
Jupiter
are too hostile for human survival, given current technology
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Remote Sensing
Remote sensing
Remote sensing
is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. Remote sensing
Remote sensing
is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science disciplines (for example, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, glaciology, geology); it also has military, intelligence, commercial, economic, planning, and humanitarian applications. In current usage, the term "remote sensing" generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, including on the surface and in the atmosphere and oceans, based on propagated signals (e.g. electromagnetic radiation)
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Computer Simulation
Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model. Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics (computational physics), astrophysics, climatology, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions.[1] Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling
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Academic Journal
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic
Academic
journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed.[1] Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to the first editor of the world's oldest academic journal Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."[2] The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals
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Democritus
Democritus
Democritus
(/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.[3] Democritus
Democritus
was born in Abdera, Thrace,[4] around 460 BC, although some thought it was 490 BC. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts
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Hippolytus Of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
(170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church
Christian Church
in Rome,[1] where he was probably born.[2] Photios I of Constantinople
Photios I of Constantinople
describes him in his Bibliotheca (cod. 121) as a disciple of Irenaeus, who was said to be a disciple of Polycarp, and from the context of this passage it is supposed that he suggested that Hippolytus so styled himself. However, this assertion is doubtful.[1] He came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a schismatic group as a rival to the Bishop of Rome. He opposed the Roman bishops who softened the penitential system to accommodate the large number of new pagan converts
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Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
(Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[4] He met with opposition from astronomers,
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Jupiter
by volume:6999890000000000000♠89%±2.0% hydrogen (H 2)6999100000000000000♠10%±2.0% helium (He)6997300000000000000♠0.3%±0.1% methane (CH 4)6996259999999999999♠0.026%±0.004% ammonia (NH 3)6995280000000000000♠0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994599999999999999♠0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C 2H 6)6994400000000000000♠0.0004%±0.0004% water (H 2O)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Jupiter
Jupiter
is the fifth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
combined. Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn
Saturn
are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune
Neptune
are ice giants
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Rings Of Saturn
The rings of Saturn
Saturn
are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System. They consist of countless small particles, ranging from μm to m in size,[1] that orbit about Saturn. The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice, with a trace component of rocky material. There is still no consensus as to their mechanism of formation; some features of the rings suggest a relatively recent origin, but theoretical models indicate they are likely to have formed early in the Solar System's history.[2] Although reflection from the rings increases Saturn's brightness, they are not visible from Earth with unaided vision. In 1610, the year after Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
turned a telescope to the sky, he became the first person to observe Saturn's rings, though he could not see them well enough to discern their true nature
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Optical Telescope
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors. There are three primary types of optical telescope:refractors, which use lenses (dioptrics) reflectors, which use mirrors (catoptrics) catadioptric telescopes, which combine lenses and mirrorsA telescope's light gathering power and ability to resolve small detail is directly related to the diameter (or aperture) of its objective (the primary lens or mirror that collects and focuses the light)
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Space Probe
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.[1] A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space. See List of active Solar System probes
List of active Solar System probes
for a list of active probes; the space agencies of the USSR (now Russia
Russia
and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China
China
and India
India
have in the aggregate launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System as well as to a number of asteroids and comets
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Astrobiology
Astrobiology
Astrobiology
is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe: extraterrestrial life and life on Earth
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Analytical Dynamics
In classical mechanics, analytical dynamics, or more briefly dynamics, is concerned with the relationship between motion of bodies and its causes, namely the forces acting on the bodies and the properties of the bodies, particularly mass and moment of inertia
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