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History Of Physical Cosmology
Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology
is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe
Universe
and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.[1] Cosmology
Cosmology
as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those physical laws
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Cosmology
Cosmology
Cosmology
(from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
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Phantom Energy
Phantom energy is a hypothetical form of dark energy satisfying the equation of state with w < − 1 displaystyle w<-1 . It possesses negative kinetic energy, and predicts expansion of the universe in excess of that predicted by a cosmological constant, which leads to a Big Rip.Contents1 Consequences1.1 Big Rip
Big Rip
mechanism2 References 3 Further readingConsequences[edit] The existence of phantom energy could cause the expansion of the universe to accelerate so quickly that a scenario known as the Big Rip, a possible end to the universe, occurs. Big Rip
Big Rip
mechanism[edit] Main article: Big Rip The expansion of the universe reaches an infinite degree in finite time, causing expansion to accelerate without bounds
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Heat Death Of The Universe
The heat death of the universe is a plausible ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat
Heat
death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work
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Big Rip
In physical cosmology, the Big Rip
Big Rip
is a hypothetical cosmological model concerning the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future. According to the hypothesis, first published in 2003, the scale factor of the universe and with it all distances in the universe will become infinite at a finite time in the future. The possibility of sudden singularities and crunch or rip singularities at late times[clarification needed] occur only for hypothetical matter with implausible physical properties.[1]Contents1 Overview1.1 Expansion2 Author's example 3 Observed universe 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] The hypothesis relies crucially on the type of dark energy in the universe
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Big Crunch
The Big Crunch
Big Crunch
is one possible scenario for the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the metric expansion of space eventually reverses and the universe recollapses, ultimately causing the cosmic scale factor to reach zero or causing a reformation of the universe starting with another Big Bang. Overview[edit] If the universe's expansion speed does not exceed the escape velocity, then the mutual gravitational attraction of all its matter will eventually cause it to contract. If entropy continues to increase in the contracting phase (see Ergodic hypothesis), the contraction would appear very different from the time reversal of the expansion
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Big Bounce
The Big Bounce
Big Bounce
is a hypothetical cosmological model for the origin of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a phase of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang, where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe. It receded from serious consideration in the early 1980s after inflation theory emerged as a solution to the horizon problem, which had arisen from advances in observations revealing the large-scale structure of the universe. In the early 2000s, inflation was found by some theorists to be problematic and unfalsifiable in that its various parameters could be adjusted to fit any observations, so that the properties of the observable universe are a matter of chance
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Lambda-CDM Model
The ΛCDM ( Lambda
Lambda
cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model
Lambda-CDM model
is a parametrization of the Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda
Lambda
(Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM). It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology because it is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of the following properties of the cosmos:the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background the large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies the abundances of hydrogen (including deuterium), helium, and lithium the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovaeThe model assumes that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity on cosmological scales
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Baryonic Matter
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles. The name "baryon" comes from the Greek word for "heavy" (βαρύς, barys), because, at the time of their naming, most known elementary particles had lower masses than the baryons. As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Electrons (the other major component of the atom) are leptons. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle (antibaryon) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Radiation
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.[1][2] This includes:electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ) particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy) acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound, and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium) gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation
Radiation
is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV, which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds. This is an important distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living organisms
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Dark Energy
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.[1][2] Dark energy
Dark energy
is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3% of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount.[3][4][5][6] The density of dark energy (~ 7 × 10−30 g/cm3) is very low, much less than the density of ordinary matter or dark matter within galaxies
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Quintessence (physics)
In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more precisely a scalar field, postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe, rather than due to a true cosmological constant. The first example of this scenario was proposed by Ratra and Peebles (1988).[1] The concept was expanded to more general types of time-varying dark energy and the term "quintessence" was first introduced in a paper by Robert R. Caldwell, Rahul Dave and Paul Steinhardt.[2] It has been proposed by some physicists to be a fifth fundamental force. [3][4][5]Quintessence differs from the cosmological constant explanation of dark energy in that it is dynamic; that is, it changes over time, unlike the cosmological constant which, by definition, does not change. It is suggested that quintessence can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the ratio of its kinetic and potential energy
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Dark Matter
Dark matter
Dark matter
is a type of unidentified matter that may constitute about 80% of the total matter in the universe. It has not been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are evident in a variety of astrophysical measurements. For this reason there is a broad scientific consensus that dark matter is ubiquitous in the universe and has strongly affected its structure and evolution. Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, it must interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation only very weakly. One possibility under investigation is that it is composed of new kinds of elementary particles that have not yet been discovered - meaning it is distinct from ordinary matter such as protons, neutrons, electrons, and neutrinos
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Future Of An Expanding Universe
Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever. If so, then a popular theory is that the universe will cool as it expands, eventually becoming too cold to sustain life. For this reason, this future scenario once popularly called heat death is now known as the Big Freeze.[1] If dark energy—represented by the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously,[2] or scalar fields, such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space—accelerates the expansion of the universe, then the space between clusters of galaxies will grow at an increasing rate. Redshift
Redshift
will stretch ancient, incoming photons (even gamma rays) to undetectably long wavelengths and low energies.[3] Stars are expected to form normally for 1012 to 1014 (1–100 trillion) years, but eventually the supply of gas needed for star formation will be exhausted
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Cold Dark Matter
In cosmology and physics, cold dark matter (CDM) is a hypothetical form of dark matter whose particles moved slowly compared to the speed of light (the cold in CDM) since the universe was approximately one year old (a time when the cosmic particle horizon contained the mass of one typical galaxy); and interact very weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation (the dark in CDM). It is believed that approximately 84.54% of matter in the Universe
Universe
is dark matter, with only a small fraction being the ordinary baryonic matter that composes stars, planets and living organisms.Contents1 History 2 Structure formation2.1 Lambda CDM model3 Composition 4 Challenges 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingHistory[edit] The theory[clarification needed] was originally published in 1982 by three independent groups of cosmologists; James Peebles,[1] J
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