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History Of Iraq
The territory of the modern state of Iraq
Iraq
was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq. It is centered on Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
(corresponding to historical Babylonia, later also known as ʿIrāq-i ʿArab) but also includes part of Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
and of the Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
and the Arabian Desert
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Cradle Of Civilization
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged. Current thinking is that there was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently, with the Fertile Crescent ( Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Ancient Egypt) understood to be the earliest.[1] Other civilizations arose in Asia
Asia
among cultures situated along large river valleys, such as Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
in India[2][3] and the Yellow River
River
in China.[4] The extent to which there was significant influence between the early civilizations of the Near East and those of East Asia
Asia
is disputed
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Aq Qoyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Persian: آق‌ قویونلو‎ Āq Quyūnlū; Turkish: Ak Koyunlu), was a Persianate[3] Sunni[2] Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Eastern Turkey, part of Iran, and northern Iraq
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Al-Mazeedi
Banu Al-Mazeedi (المزيدي), or Banu Mazyad, an Arabic tribe in Iraq, were the descendants of Adnan. Initially they were part of the Banu Asad tribe living in the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In 998 AD, their leader, Ali ibn Mazyad, established an independent state, known as the Mazyadid, in the Kufa
Kufa
area, Iraq. A powerful military protected the state for more than a century.Contents1 History 2 Leaders of Banu Al-Mazeedi 3 The Al-Mazyad family outside Iraq 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Banu Mazyad acquired titles and subsidies from the Buyids
Buyids
in return for military services. In 1012, their crowning achievement was the founding of Hilla
Hilla
which would later become their capital.[1] The rulers of the Mazyadid State were said to be "Arabs, belonging to Bani Mazid from the Asadi Tribe
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Ayyubid Dynasty
The Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(Arabic: الأيوبيون‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish: خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin[2][3][4] founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin
Saladin
had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171
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Seljuk Empire
in Anatolia Artuqid
Artuqid
dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid
Burid
dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Great Seljuq Empire
Empire
(Turkish Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu) or Great Seljuk State (Turkmen Beỳik Seljuk Döwleti), known by its endonym Āl-e Saljuq (Persian آلِ سلجوق‬ "The House (family/clan) of Seljuk") was a medieval Turko-Persian[14] Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.[15] The Seljuk Empire
Empire
controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Levant, and from Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Persian Gulf
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Ilkhanate
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStates Mongol
Mongol
khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203
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Jalairid Sultanate
The Jalairids were a Mongol
Mongol
Jalayir
Jalayir
dynasty which ruled over Iraq
Iraq
and western Persia
Persia
after the breakup of the Mongol
Mongol
khanate of Persia
Persia
in the 1330s.[3] The Jalairid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Timur's conquests and the revolts of the Kara Koyunlu ("Black Sheep") Turkmen.[4] After Timur's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq
Iraq
and Khuzistan
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Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (Persian: قره قویونلو‎), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia
Armenia
(1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq
Iraq
from about 1375 to 1468.[2][3]Contents1 History 2 Religion 3 Jahān Shāh 4 Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
rule4.1 Armenia5 Mausoleum of Turkmen emirs 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes8.1 Works cited9 Further readingHistory[edit] The Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
Turkomans at one point established their capital in Herat
Herat
in eastern Iran.[4] They were vassals of the Jalairid Sultanate in Baghdad
Baghdad
and Tabriz
Tabriz
from about 1375, when the leader of their leading tribe ruled over Mosul
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20th-century History Of Iraq
The 20th century
20th century
was a century that began on January 1, 1901[1] and ended on December 31, 2000.[2] It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900
1900
and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century
20th century
was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War
Cold War
and post- Cold War
Cold War
conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction;[3][4] and the birth of the Digital Revolution
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Marwanids
The Marwanids
Marwanids
(990–1085) were a Kurdish Muslim[1][2][3][4][5][6] dynasty in the Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
region of Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
(present day northern Iraq/southeastern Turkey) and Armenia, centered on the city of Amid
Amid
(Diyarbakır).[7] Other cities under their rule were Arzan, Mayyāfāriqīn (today Silvan), Hisn Kayfa (Hasankeyf), Khilāṭ, Manzikart, Arjish. According to most academic sources[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15], the Marwanids
Marwanids
were a Kurdish dynasty
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Iraqi Republic (1958–68)
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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History Of Iraq (2011–present)
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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Arabian Desert
The Arabian Desert
Desert
is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia. It stretches from Yemen
Yemen
to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Oman
Oman
to Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq. It occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, with an area of 2,330,000 square kilometers (900,000 sq mi). It is the fourth largest desert in the world, and the largest in Asia. At its center is the Rub'al-Khali, one of the largest continuous bodies of sand in the world. Gazelles, oryx, sand cats, and spiny-tailed lizards are just some of the desert-adapted species that survive in this extreme environment, which features everything from red dunes to deadly quicksand. The climate is mostly dry (the major part receives around 100 mm of rain per year but some very rare places receives down to 50 mm), and temperatures oscillate between very high heat and seasonal night time freezes
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List Of Languages By First Written Accounts
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language. It does not include undeciphered scripts, though there are various claims without wide acceptance, which, if substantiated, would push backward the first attestation of certain languages. It also does not include inscriptions consisting of isolated words or names from a language. A written record may encode a stage of a language corresponding to an earlier time, either as a result of oral tradition, or because the earliest source is a copy of an older manuscript that was lost. An oral tradition of epic poetry may typically bridge a few centuries, and in rare cases, over a millennium. An extreme case is the Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
of the Rigveda: the earliest parts of this text may date to c. 1500 BC,[1] while the oldest known manuscript dates to the 11th century AD, a gap of over 2,500 years
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Sumerian Literature
Sumerian literature
Sumerian literature
is the literature written in the Sumerian language during the Middle Bronze Age. Most Sumerian literature
Sumerian literature
is preserved indirectly, via Assyrian or Babylonian copies. The Sumerians invented the first writing system, developing Sumerian cuneiform writing out of earlier proto-writing systems by about the 30th century BC
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