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History Of Geophysics
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors. One of these is the research curiosity of humankind related to Planet Earth and its several components, its events and its problems
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Darcy's Law
Darcy's law
Darcy's law
is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium
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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, OM, GCVO, PC, FRS, FRSE
FRSE
(26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish[1][2] mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast
Belfast
in 1824. At the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form. He worked closely with mathematics professor Hugh Blackburn
Hugh Blackburn
in his work. He also had a career as an electric telegraph engineer and inventor, which propelled him into the public eye and ensured his wealth, fame and honour. For his work on the transatlantic telegraph project he was knighted in 1866 by Queen Victoria, becoming Sir William Thomson
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Alexis Clairaut
Alexis Claude Clairaut (French: [klɛʁo]; 13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist. He was a prominent Newtonian whose work helped to establish the validity of the principles and results that Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
had outlined in the Principia of 1687. Clairaut was one of the key figures in the expedition to Lapland that helped to confirm Newton's theory for the figure of the Earth. In that context, Clairaut worked out a mathematical result now known as "Clairaut's theorem". He also tackled the gravitational three-body problem, being the first to obtain a satisfactory result for the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit
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Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish
FRS (/ˈkævəndɪʃ/; 10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. Cavendish is noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air".[1] He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper "On Factitious Airs". Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name. A notoriously shy man (it has been postulated that he was on the autism spectrum),[2] Cavendish was nonetheless distinguished for great accuracy and precision in his researches into the composition of atmospheric air, the properties of different gases, the synthesis of water, the law governing electrical attraction and repulsion, a mechanical theory of heat, and calculations of the density (and hence the mass) of the Earth
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Alexander Von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
(/ˈhʌmboʊlt/;[5] German: [ˈhʊmbɔlt] ( listen); 14 September 1769 – 6 May 1859) was a Prussian
Prussian
polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.[6] He was the younger brother of the Prussian
Prussian
minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
(1767–1835).[7][8][9] Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Humboldt's advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring.[10][11] Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view
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Edmund Halley
Edmond[1] (or Edmund[2]) Halley, FRS (/ˈɛdmənd ˈhæli/;[3][4] 8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656 – 25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741]) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He was the second Astronomer
Astronomer
Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed. He computed the orbit of Halley's Comet, which was named after him as a result.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Publications and inventions 2.2 Exploration years3 Personal life 4 Named after Edmond Halley 5 Pronunciation and spelling 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Halley was born in Haggerston, in east London. His father, Edmond Halley Sr., came from a Derbyshire
Derbyshire
family and was a wealthy soap-maker in London. As a child, Halley was very interested in mathematics. He studied at St Paul's School, and from 1673 at The Queen's College, Oxford
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Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss
(/ɡaʊs/; German: Gauß, pronounced [ɡaʊs] ( listen); Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician who made significant contributions to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, magnetic fields, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics. Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum[1] (Latin for "the foremost of mathematicians") and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptiona
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John Milne
John Milne
John Milne
(30 December 1850 – 31 July 1913[1]) [2] was a British geologist and mining engineer who worked on a horizontal seismograph.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early career 1.2 Career in Japan
Japan
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Robert Mallet
Robert Mallet, FRS, MRIA (3 June 1810 – 5 November 1881), Irish geophysicist, civil engineer, and inventor who distinguished himself in research on earthquakes and is sometimes called the father of seismology.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Seismological work 2.2 Other work3 Notes 4 External linksEarly life[edit] Mallet was born in Dublin, on 3 June 1810, the son of factory owner John Mallet. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, entering it at the age of 16 and graduating in science and mathematics in 1830 at the age of 20. Career[edit] Following his graduation, he joined his father's iron foundry business and helped build the firm into one of the most important engineering works in Ireland, supplying ironwork for railway companies, the Fastnet Rock
Fastnet Rock
lighthouse, and a swing bridge over the River Shannon
River Shannon
at Athlone
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Age Of The Earth
The age of the Earth
Earth
is approximately 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%).[1][2][3][4] This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth
Earth
formed.[5]
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Radioactivity
Radioactive
Radioactive
decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. Radioactive
Radioactive
decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay,[1][2][3] regardless of how long the atom has existed
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Arthur Holmes
Prof Arthur Holmes
Arthur Holmes
FRS[1] FRSE
FRSE
LLD (14 January 1890 – 20 September 1965) was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology
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Water Cycle
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth
Earth
remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor. The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. When water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment. When it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment
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Precession Of The Equinox
Precession
Precession
is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the rotation itself. In other words, if the axis of rotation of a body is itself rotating about a second axis, that body is said to be precessing about the second axis. A motion in which the second Euler angle changes is called nutation. In physics, there are two types of precession: torque-free and torque-induced. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters
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Vitruvius
Marcus Vitruvius
Vitruvius
Pollio (/vɪˈtruːviəs ˈpɒlioʊ/; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.[1] His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance
Renaissance
drawing by Da Vinci of Vitruvian Man. By his own description[2] Vitruvius
Vitruvius
served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices
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