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History Of Fluid Mechanics The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.Contents1 Antiquity1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Archimedes 1.3 The Alexandrian school 1.4 Sextus Julius Frontinus2 Middle Ages2.1 Islamicate physicists 2.2 Islamicate engineers3 Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries3.1 Castelli and Torricelli 3.2 Blaise Pascal 3.3 Mariotte and Guglielmini 3.4 Studies by Isaac Newton3.4.1 Friction Friction and viscosity 3.4.2 Orifices 3.4.3 Waves3.5 Daniel Bernoulli 3.6 Jean le Rond d'Alem [...More...]  "History Of Fluid Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Fluid Mechanics Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including mechanical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms; that is, it models matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather than from microscopic. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many problems that are partly or wholly unsolved. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex, and can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers [...More...]  "Fluid Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Weight In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.[1][2][3] Some standard textbooks[4] define weight as a vector quantity, the gravitational force acting on the object. Others[5][6] define weight as a scalar quantity, the magnitude of the gravitational force. Others[7] define it as the magnitude of the reaction force exerted on a body by mechanisms that keep it in place: the weight is the quantity that is measured by, for example, a spring scale. Thus, in a state of free fall, the weight would be zero [...More...]  "Weight" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

AlKhazini Abū alFath Abd alRahman Mansūr alKhāzini or simply alKhāzini (ابوالفتح عبدالرحمن منصور خازنی (Persian), flourished 1115–1130) was an astronomer of Byzantine Byzantine origin from Seljuk Persia [...More...]  "AlKhazini" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Experiment An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into causeandeffect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of handson activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time.[1] Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g [...More...]  "Experiment" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Scientific Method The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.[2] To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[3] The Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses".[4] Experiments are a procedure designed to test hypotheses. Experiments are an important tool of the scientific method.[5][6] The method is a continuous process that begins with observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are [...More...]  "Scientific Method" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Fluid Statics Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest. It encompasses the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium as opposed to fluid dynamics, the study of fluids in motion. Hydrostatics Hydrostatics are categorized as a part of the fluid statics, which is the study of all fluids, incompressible or not, at rest. Hydrostatics Hydrostatics is fundamental to hydraulics, the engineering of equipment for storing, transporting and using fluids [...More...]  "Fluid Statics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Specific Weight The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material. The symbol of specific weight is γ (the Greek letter Gamma). A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth Earth at 4°C which is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43 lbf/ft3 [...More...]  "Specific Weight" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Ratio In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.[1] For example, if a bowl of fruit contains eight oranges and six lemons, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8:6, which is equivalent to the ratio 4:3). Similarly, the ratio of lemons to oranges is 6:8 (or 3:4) and the ratio of oranges to the total amount of fruit is 8:14 (or 4:7). The numbers in a ratio may be quantities of any kind, such as quantities of persons, objects, lengths, weights, etc. A ratio may be either a whole number or a fraction. A ratio may be written as "a to b" or a:b, or it may be expressed as a quotient of "a and b".[2] When the two quantities are measured with the same unit, as is often the case, their ratio is a dimensionless number [...More...]  "Ratio" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them. The insight with exploiting infinitesimals was that entities could still retain certain specific properties, such as angle or slope, even though these entities were quantitatively small.[1] The word infinitesimal comes from a 17thcentury Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infiniteth" item in a sequence. Infinitesimals are a basic ingredient in the procedures of infinitesimal calculus as developed by Leibniz, including the law of continuity and the transcendental law of homogeneity. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object that is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size—or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective, "infinitesimal" means "extremely small" [...More...]  "Infinitesimal" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Algebra Algebra Algebra (from Arabic Arabic "aljabr" literally meaning "reunion of broken parts"[1]) is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols;[2] it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics.[3] As such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra; the more abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics [...More...]  "Algebra" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Calculation A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change [...More...]  "Calculation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Test Method A test method is a method for a test in science or engineering, such as a physical test, chemical test, or statistical test. It is a definitive procedure that produces a test result.[1] In order to ensure accurate and relevant test results, a test method should be "explicit, unambiguous, and experimentally feasible."[2], as well as effective[3] and reproducible.[4] A test can be considered an observation or experiment that determines one or more characteristics of a given sample, product, process, or service [...More...]  "Test Method" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Freshwater Fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineralrich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water Fresh water is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment [...More...]  "Freshwater" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Science In Medieval Islam Science in the medieval Islamic world Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, Buyid Persia, Tamerlane's Transoxiana, the Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1429. Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included alchemy and chemistry, botany, geography and cartography, ophthalmology, pharmacology, physics, and zoology. Medieval Islamic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding [...More...]  "Science In Medieval Islam" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Saline Water Saline water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one milliliter of water can dissolve about 0.357 grams of salt; a concentration of 26.3% [...More...]  "Saline Water" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 