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History Of Econophysics
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics. Some of its application to the study of financial markets has also been termed statistical finance referring to its roots in statistical physics.Contents1 History 2 Basic tools 3 Influence 4 Main results 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading7.1 Lectures8 External linksHistory[edit] Physicists' interest in the social sciences is not new; Daniel Bernoulli, as an example, was the originator of utility-based preferences
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Francis Longstaff
Francis A. Longstaff (born August 3, 1956)[1] is an American educator and pioneer in quantitative finance. He serves as the Allstate Professor of Insurance and Finance at the Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, and the former Finance Area Chair.[2] His research focuses on fixed income markets, term structure, derivatives, credit risk, computational finance and the role of arbitrage in financial markets
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Léon Walras
Marie-Esprit- Léon Walras
Léon Walras
(French: [valʁas];[1] 16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist.[2] He formulated the marginal theory of value (independently of William Stanley Jevons
William Stanley Jevons
and Carl Menger) and pioneered the development of general equilibrium theory.Contents1 Biography 2 Life and career2.1 General equilibrium
General equilibrium
theory 2.2 Economic value definition of utility3 Legacy 4 Major works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit]Théorie mathématique de la richesse sociale, 1883Walras was the son of a French school administrator Auguste Walras. His father was not a professional economist, yet his economic thinking had a profound effect on his son
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Vilfredo Pareto
Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (Italian: [vilˈfreːdo paˈreːto]; born Wilfried Fritz Pareto, 15 July 1848 – 19 August 1923) was an Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher, now also known for the 80/20 rule, named after him as the Pareto principle. He made several important contributions to economics, particularly in the study of income distribution and in the analysis of individuals' choices. He was also responsible for popularising the use of the term "elite" in social analysis. He introduced the concept of Pareto efficiency
Pareto efficiency
and helped develop the field of microeconomics. He was also the first to discover that income follows a Pareto distribution, which is a power law probability distribution. The Pareto principle was named after him, and it was built on observations of his such as that 80% of the land in Italy
Italy
was owned by about 20% of the population
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General Equilibrium Theory
In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium. General equilibrium theory
General equilibrium theory
contrasts to the theory of partial equilibrium, which only analyzes single markets. General equilibrium theory
General equilibrium theory
both studies economies using the model of equilibrium pricing and seeks to determine in which circumstances the assumptions of general equilibrium will hold
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Mechanical Equilibrium
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.[1]:39 By extension, a physical system made up of many parts is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on each of its individual parts is zero.[1]:45–46[2] In addition to defining mechanical equilibrium in terms of force, there are many alternative definitions for mechanical equilibrium which are all mathematically equivalent. In terms of momentum, a system is in equilibrium if the momentum of its parts is all constant. In terms of velocity, the system is in equilibrium if velocity is constant
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Ian Steedman
Ian Steedman (born 1941 in London)[1] was for many years a Professor of economics at the University of Manchester before moving down the road to Manchester Metropolitan University. He retired from there at the end of 2006, but was appointed as an Emeritus Professor.[2]Contents1 His work1.1 Books 1.2 Chapters in books 1.3 Papers2 Other academic duties 3 ReferencesHis work[edit] Steedman has been recognised as one of the leading Neo-Ricardian economic theorists with work in the areas overlapping with those of Marx, Sraffa, Marshall, Jevons and Wicksteed. He has also made contributions to economic theory on time, international trade, capital theory and growth and distribution.[3] He is also a Senior Research Fellow at the William Temple Foundation and his work now includes the study of "happiness" and its relation to welfare economics.[4] Books[edit]Marx after Sraffa. NLB, London, 1977 Trade Amongst Growing Economies. , 1979 From Exploitation to Altruism
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Neo-Ricardianism
The neo-Ricardian school is an economic school that derives from the close reading and interpretation of David Ricardo
David Ricardo
by Piero Sraffa, and from Sraffa's critique of neo-classical economics as presented in his The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities, and further developed by the neo-Ricardians in the course of the Cambridge capital controversy
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Jean-Philippe Bouchaud
Jean-Philippe Bouchaud (born 1962) is a French physicist. He is founder and Chairman of Capital Fund Management (CFM), professor of physics at École polytechnique and co-director of the CFM-Imperial Institute of Quantitative Finance
Finance
at Imperial College London. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards 3 Bibliography 4 FootnotesBiography[edit] Born in Paris
Paris
in 1962, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud studied at the French Lycée in London. Graduated from École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
in 1985, he worked on his PhD at the Laboratory of Hertzian Spectroscopy, studying spin-polarized quantum gases with Claire Lhuillier. He then worked for the French National Center for Scientific Research, in particular on liquid Helium 3 and diffusion in random media
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Bikas K Chakrabarti
Bikas Kanta Chakrabarti (born in Calcutta on December 14, 1952) is an Indian physicist.[1] He is presently emeritus professor of physics at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India.Contents1 Biography 2 Honors and awards 3 Publications3.1 Books 3.2 Reviews4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Chakrabarti received his Ph.D. degree from Calcutta University
Calcutta University
in 1979. Following post-doctoral work at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University of Cologne, he joined the faculty of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
Physics
(SINP) in 1983. Since January 2018, he is J. C. Bose National Fellow and Emeritus Professor at SINP, Honorary Emeritus Professor at S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata. He is a former director of SINP. He is also an Honorary Visiting Professor of economics at the Indian Statistical Institute
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J. Doyne Farmer
J. Doyne Farmer (born 22 June 1952) is an American complex systems scientist and entrepreneur with interests in chaos theory, complexity and econophysics. He is a Professor of Mathematics at Oxford University, where he is Director of the Complexity Economics at the Institute for New Economic Thinking at the Oxford Martin School, and is also an external professor at the Santa Fe Institute. His current research is on complexity economics, focusing on systemic risk in financial markets and technological progress. During his career he has made important contributions to complex systems, chaos, artificial life, theoretical biology, time series forecasting and econophysics. He co-founded Prediction Company, one of the first companies to do fully automated quantitative trading
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Dirk Helbing
Dirk Helbing
Dirk Helbing
is Professor of Computational Social Science at the Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences and affiliate of the Computer Science Department at ETH Zurich.Contents1 Biography 2 Research activities2.1 Living Earth Simulator 2.2 Noteworthy Projects and Presentations by Dirk Helbing's Research Teams in Dresden, Zurich and Delft3 Footnotes 4 External linksBiography[edit] Dirk Helbing
Dirk Helbing
studied physics and mathematics at the University of Göttingen. He completed his doctoral thesis at Stuttgart University, on modeling social processes by means of game-theoretical approaches, stochastic methods, and complex systems theory.[14] In 1996, he completed further studies on traffic dynamics and optimization. In 2000, he became a full professor and Managing Director of the Institute for Transport and Economics at Dresden University of Technology
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Joseph L. McCauley
Joseph L. McCauley (born 1943) is Professor of Physics at the University of Houston. He was Lars Onsager's last graduate student. His main research fields are economics and finance (econophysics), nonlinear dynamics, and statistical physics. He has also published papers on the theory of superfluids, quantum theory of vortices, cosmology, porous media, critical phenomena, and science wars. McCauley predicted a Dollar crisis in April, 2007, this is described in chapter 9 of his 2009 book Dynamics of Markets. Once an avid and successful outboard racer, he has returned to theoretical hydrodynamics and studies surface-piercing propellers, both in theory and in practice
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The Observatory Of Economic Complexity
The Observatory of Economic Complexity
The Observatory of Economic Complexity
is a data visualization site for international trade data created by the Macro Connections group at the MIT Media Lab. The goal of the observatory is to distribute international trade data in a visual form
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Didier Sornette
Didier Sornette
Didier Sornette
(born June 25, 1957 in Paris) is Professor on the Chair of Entrepreneurial Risks at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) since March 2006. He is also a professor of the Swiss Finance
Finance
Institute, and a professor associated with both the department of Physics
Physics
and the department of Earth Sciences at ETH Zurich. He was previously jointly a Professor of Geophysics
Geophysics
at UCLA, Los Angeles California (1996–2006) and a Research Professor at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (1981–2006), working on the theory and prediction of complex systems.[1] Pioneer in econophysics, in 1994, he co-founded with Jean-Philippe Bouchaud the company Science et Finance, which later merged with Capital Fund Management (CFM)[2] in 2000
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