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History Of Cosmology
Cosmology
Cosmology
(from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
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Cosmology (other)
Cosmology
Cosmology
is the academic discipline that seeks to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the universe. Cosmology
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Metric Expansion Of Space
The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.[1] It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. It means that the early universe did not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" the universe - instead space itself changed, carrying the early universe with it as it grew. This is a completely different kind of expansion than the expansions and explosions seen in daily life. It also seems to be a property of the entire universe as a whole rather than a phenomenon that applies just to one part of the universe or can be observed from "outside" it. Metric expansion is a key feature of Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology, is modeled mathematically with the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric and is a generic property of the universe we inhabit
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Celestial Object
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.[1] In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies
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Big Bang
The Big Bang
Big Bang
theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe[1] from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.[2][3][4] The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state,[5][6] and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure and Hubble's law.[7] If the known laws of physics are extrapolated to the highest density regime, the result is a singularity which is typically associated with the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time
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Observational Astronomy
Observational astronomy
Observational astronomy
is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. As a science, the study of astronomy is somewhat hindered in that direct experiments with the properties of the distant universe are not possible. However, this is partly compensated by the fact that astronomers have a vast number of visible examples of stellar phenomena that can be examined. This allows for observational data to be plotted on graphs, and general trends recorded. Nearby examples of specific phenomena, such as variable stars, can then be used to infer the behavior of more distant representatives
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Particle Physics
Particle
Particle
physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model
Standard Model
and its various possible extensions, e.g
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Dark Matter
Dark matter
Dark matter
is a type of unidentified matter that may constitute about 80% of the total matter in the universe. It has not been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are evident in a variety of astrophysical measurements. For this reason there is a broad scientific consensus that dark matter is ubiquitous in the universe and has strongly affected its structure and evolution. Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, it must interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation only very weakly. One possibility under investigation is that it is composed of new kinds of elementary particles that have not yet been discovered - meaning it is distinct from ordinary matter such as protons, neutrons, electrons, and neutrinos
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Dark Energy
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.[1][2] Dark energy
Dark energy
is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3% of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount.[3][4][5][6] The density of dark energy (~ 7 × 10−30 g/cm3) is very low, much less than the density of ordinary matter or dark matter within galaxies
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Lambda-CDM
The ΛCDM ( Lambda
Lambda
cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model
Lambda-CDM model
is a parametrization of the Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda
Lambda
(Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM). It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology because it is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of the following properties of the cosmos:the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background the large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies the abundances of hydrogen (including deuterium), helium, and lithium the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovaeThe model assumes that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity on cosmological scales
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David Spergel
David Nathaniel Spergel (born March 25, 1961), is an American theoretical astrophysicist and Princeton University
Princeton University
professor known for his work on the WMAP
WMAP
(Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) mission. Spergel is a MacArthur Fellow. He is a member of the NASA Advisory Council and is chair of the Space Studies Board. He was once the W.M. Keck distinguished visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He was part of the team that originated the WMAP
WMAP
mission and designed the spacecraft, and has worked on deciphering the data that it beams back from space. Spergel is playing a leading role in developing the WFIRST(Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope), a multibillion-dollar space mission planned for launch in the mid-2020s. Spergel is the Charles A Young Professor of Astronomy and a member of the National Academy of Sciences
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Speed Of Light
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is 7008299792458000000♠299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 7008300000000000000♠3.00×108 m/s, or 300,000 km/s (186,000 mi/s)[Note 3]). It is exact because the unit of length, the metre, is defined from this constant and the international standard for time.[2] According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all conventional matter and hence all known forms of information in the universe can travel. Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is in fact the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields travel in vacuum (including electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves). Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer
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Timeline Of The Formation Of The Universe
This is a timeline of the formation and subsequent evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang
Big Bang
(13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago) to the present day
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Cosmic Microwave Background
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology. In older literature, the CMB
CMB
is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB
CMB
is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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Accelerating Expansion Of The Universe
The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate,[1][2][3] so that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.[4] The accelerated expansion was discovered in 1998, by two independent projects, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search Team, which both used distant type Ia supernovae to measure the acceleration.[5][6][7] The idea was that these type 1a supernovae all have almost the same intrinsic brightness (a standard candle). Since objects that are further away appear dimmer, we can use the observed brightness of these supernovae to measure the distance to them. The distance can then be compared to the supernovae's cosmological redshift, which measures how fast the supernovae are receding from us.[8] The unexpected result was that the universe seems to be expanding at an accelerating rate
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