HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

History Of Condensed Matter Physics
Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics
is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter,[1] where particles adhere to each other. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using physical laws. In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate
Bose–Einstein condensate
found in ultracold atomic systems
[...More...]

"History Of Condensed Matter Physics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Phase (matter)
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.[1][2]:86[3]:3 Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase
[...More...]

"Phase (matter)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Antiferromagnetism
In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions. This is, like ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, a manifestation of ordered magnetism. Generally, antiferromagnetic order may exist at sufficiently low temperatures, vanishing at and above a certain temperature, the Néel temperature (named after Louis Néel, who had first identified this type of magnetic ordering).[1] Above the Néel temperature, the material is typically paramagnetic.Contents1 Measurement 2 Antiferromagnetic materials 3 Geometric frustration 4 Other properties 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksMeasurement[edit] When no external field is applied, the antiferromagnetic structure corresponds to a vanishing total magnetization
[...More...]

"Antiferromagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Topological Insulator
A topological insulator is a material with non-trivial symmetry protected topological order that behaves as an insulator in its interior but whose surface contains conducting states,[1] meaning that electrons can only move along the surface of the material. However, having a conducting surface is not unique to topological insulators, since ordinary band insulators can also support conductive surface states. What is special about topological insulators is that their surface states are symmetry protected[2][3][4][5] by particle number conservation and time reversal symmetry. In the bulk of a non-interacting topological insulator, the electronic band structure resembles an ordinary band insulator, with the Fermi level falling between the conduction and valence bands. On the surface of a topological insulator there are special states that fall within the bulk energy gap and allow surface metallic conduction
[...More...]

"Topological Insulator" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Spin Gapless Semiconductor
Spin gapless semiconductors are a novel class of materials with unique electrical band structure for different spin channels in such a way that there is no gap (gapless) for spin channel while there is a finite gap in another spin channel. Prediction and discovery[edit] Spin gapless semiconductor
Spin gapless semiconductor
was first proposed as a new spintronics concept and a new class of spintronic materials in 2008 in a paper by Xiaolin Wang of the University of Wollongong
University of Wollongong
in Australia.[1] Properties and applications[edit] References[edit]^ Wang, Xiaolin (18 April 2008). "Proposal for a New Class of Materials: Spin Gapless Semiconductors". Physical Review Letters. 100 (15): 156404. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.100.156404. This physics-related article is a stub
[...More...]

"Spin Gapless Semiconductor" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Quantum Hall Effect
The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values σ = I channel V Hall = ν e 2 h , displaystyle sigma = frac I_ text channel V_ text Hall =nu frac e^ 2 h , where Ichannel is the channel current, VHall is the Hall voltage, e is the elementary charge and h is Planck's constant. The prefactor ν is known as the filling factor, and can take on either integer (ν = 1, 2, 3,…) or fractional (ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 2/3, 3/5, 1/5, 2/9, 3/13, 5/2, 12/5,…) values
[...More...]

"Quantum Hall Effect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Spin Hall Effect
The spin Hall effect
Hall effect
(SHE) is a transport phenomenon predicted by Russian physicists Mikhail I. Dyakonov and Vladimir I. Perel in 1971.[1][2] It consists of the appearance of spin accumulation on the lateral surfaces of an electric current-carrying sample, the signs of the spin directions being opposite on the opposing boundaries. In a cylindrical wire, the current-induced surface spins will wind around the wire
[...More...]

"Spin Hall Effect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Kondo Effect
In physics, the Kondo effect
Kondo effect
describes the scattering of conduction electrons in a metal due to magnetic impurities, resulting in a characteristic change in electrical resistivity with temperature.[1] The effect was first described by Jun Kondo, who applied third-order perturbation theory to the problem to account for s-d electron scattering. Kondo's model predicted that the scattering rate of conduction electrons of the magnetic impurity should diverge as the temperature approaches 0 K.[2] Extended to a lattice of magnetic impurities, the Kondo effect
Kondo effect
likely explains the formation of heavy fermions and Kondo insulators in intermetallic compounds, especially those involving rare earth elements like cerium, praseodymium, and ytterbium, and actinide elements like uranium
[...More...]

"Kondo Effect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Diamagnetism
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force. In contrast, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field. Diamagnetism
Diamagnetism
is a quantum mechanical effect that occurs in all materials; when it is the only contribution to the magnetism, the material is called diamagnetic. In paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances the weak diamagnetic force is overcome by the attractive force of magnetic dipoles in the material
[...More...]

"Diamagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Superdiamagnetism
Superdiamagnetism
Superdiamagnetism
(or perfect diamagnetism) is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of magnetic permeability (i.e. a magnetic susceptibility χ v displaystyle chi _ v = −1) and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field. Superdiamagnetism
Superdiamagnetism
established that the superconductivity of a material was a stage of phase transition. Superconducting magnetic levitation is due to superdiamagnetism, which repels a permanent magnet which approaches the superconductor, and flux pinning, which prevents the magnet floating away. Superdiamagnetism
Superdiamagnetism
is a feature of superconductivity
[...More...]

"Superdiamagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Paramagnetism
Paramagnetism
Paramagnetism
is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields and form induced magnetic fields in the direction opposite to that of the applied magnetic field.[1] Paramagnetic materials include most chemical elements and some compounds;[2] they have a relative magnetic permeability slightly greater than 1 (i.e., a small positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak
[...More...]

"Paramagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Superparamagnetism
Superparamagnetism
Superparamagnetism
is a form of magnetism which appears in small ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles. In sufficiently small nanoparticles, magnetization can randomly flip direction under the influence of temperature. The typical time between two flips is called the Néel relaxation time. In the absence of an external magnetic field, when the time used to measure the magnetization of the nanoparticles is much longer than the Néel relaxation time, their magnetization appears to be in average zero; they are said to be in the superparamagnetic state
[...More...]

"Superparamagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism
is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. In physics, several different types of magnetism are distinguished. Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism
(including ferrimagnetism)[1] is the strongest type: it is the only one that typically creates forces strong enough to be felt, and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism in magnets encountered in everyday life. Substances respond weakly to magnetic fields with three other types of magnetism, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and antiferromagnetism, but the forces are usually so weak that they can only be detected by sensitive instruments in a laboratory. An everyday example of ferromagnetism is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door
[...More...]

"Ferromagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Metamagnetism
Metamagnetism is a sudden (often, dramatic) increase in the magnetization of a material with a small change in an externally applied magnetic field. The metamagnetic behavior may have quite different physical causes for different types of metamagnets
[...More...]

"Metamagnetism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity
is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA
DNA
and various proteins)[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat
[...More...]

"Piezoelectricity" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Spin Glass
A spin glass is a disordered magnet, where the magnetic spins of the component atoms (the orientation of the north and south magnetic poles in three-dimensional space) are not aligned in a regular pattern. The term "glass" comes from an analogy between the magnetic disorder in a spin glass and the positional disorder of a conventional, chemical glass, e.g., a window glass. In window glass or any amorphous solid the atomic bond structure is highly irregular; in contrast, a crystal has a uniform pattern of atomic bonds. In ferromagnetic solid, magnetic spins all align in the same direction; this would be analogous to a crystal. The individual atomic bonds in a spin glass are a mixture of roughly equal numbers of ferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have the same orientation) and antiferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have exactly the opposite orientation: north and south poles are flipped 180 degrees)
[...More...]

"Spin Glass" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse
.