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History Of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Empire Of China (1915–16)
Empire of China
China
(Chinese: 中華帝國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Dìguó) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor (洪憲皇帝; Hóngxiàn Huángdì)
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Xin Dynasty
The Xin dynasty
Xin dynasty
(/ʃɪn/; Chinese: 新朝; pinyin: Xīn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Hsin Ch'ao) was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.[3] It interrupted the Han dynasty, dividing it into the periods of the Western Han
Western Han
and the Eastern Han. The sole emperor of the Xin dynasty, Wang Mang, was the nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun. After the death of her step-grandson Emperor
Emperor
Ai in 1 BC, Wang Mang
Wang Mang
rose to power. After several years of cultivating a personality cult, he finally proclaimed himself emperor in 9 AD. However, while a creative scholar and politician, he was an incompetent ruler, and his capital Chang'an
Chang'an
was besieged by peasant rebels in 23 AD
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Yellow River Civilization
Yellow River
Yellow River
civilization or Huang civilization, Hwan‐huou civilization is an ancient Chinese civilization that prospered in a middle and lower basin of the Yellow River. Agriculture
Agriculture
was started in the flood plain of the Yellow River, and before long, through flood control and the irrigation of the Yellow River, cities were developed and political power found reinforcement. One of the "four major civilizations of the ancient world", it is often included in textbooks of East Asian history, but the idea of including only the Huang civilization as one of the four biggest ancient civilizations has become outdated thanks to the discovery of other early cultures, such as the Chang Jiang and Liao civilizations
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Bamboo Annals
The Bamboo Annals (Chinese: 竹書紀年; pinyin: Zhúshū Jìnián), also known as the Ji Tomb Annals (Chinese: 汲冢紀年; pinyin: Jí Zhǒng Jìnián), is a chronicle of ancient China. It begins at the earliest legendary times (the Yellow Emperor) and extends to 299 BC, with the later centuries focusing on the history of the State of Wei in the Warring States period. It thus covers a similar period to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
(91 BC)
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Records Of The Grand Historian
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian
Sima Qian
after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court
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Zhou Dynasty (690–705)
The Zhou dynasty (/dʒoʊ/;[1] Chinese: 周), also called the Second Zhou dynasty or Restored Zhou dynasty, was a Chinese dynasty established by Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
in 690, when she proclaimed herself huangdi (emperor). The dynasty interrupted the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
until its abolition in 705, when Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
abdicated and the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was restored. Its sole ruler was Wu Zhao, who took the name Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
upon her coronation. Wu named her dynasty after the ancient Zhou Dynasty, from whom she believed herself to be descended. History[edit] The dynasty's capital was Shendu[2] (神都 divine capital, present-day Luoyang)
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Northern And Southern Dynasties
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Yangtze Civilization
Yangtze
Yangtze
civilization is a generic name for various ancient Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures from the Yangtze
Yangtze
basin of China, the representative civilization of the Chinese alongside the Yellow river civilization.Contents1 Discovery 2 Cultures 3 See also 4 ReferencesDiscovery[edit] Many remains having been found in Yellow River
Yellow River
basin since Yangshao culture of the Hwang Ho civilization was discovered in the early 20th century, a viewpoint was dominant that the origin of the Chinese civilization was Yellow River
Yellow River
basin, and it gradually opened afterwards in the neighboring areas such as Yangtze
Yangtze
basin. However, this opinion was overturned by Hemudu culture
Hemudu culture
in Yuyao, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
discovered by the excavation in the 1970s
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Shu Han
Shu or Shu Han
Shu Han
(221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China
China
in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan
Sichuan
named Shu
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Eastern Wu
Jianye (229–265, 266–280)Languages ChineseReligion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religionGovernment MonarchyKing (222–229) Emperor (229–280) •  222–252 Sun Quan •  252–258 Sun Liang •  258–264 Sun Xiu •  264–280 Sun HaoHistorical era Three Kingdoms •  Independence from Cao Wei 222 •  Sun Quan
Sun Quan
declaring himself Emperor 229 •  Conquest of Wu by Jin 31 May 280[1]Population •  238[2] est. 2,567,00
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Linguistic History Of China
The languages of China
China
are the languages that are spoken in China. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major language groups ( classified as dialects by the Chinese government for political reasons), is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China.[5] Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary varieties, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that they will often be mutually unintelligible, similarly to English and German or Danish. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang
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Yellow River
The Yellow River
River
or Huang He ( listen) is the third longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze
Yangtze
River
River
and Yenisei River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi).[1] Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai
Qinghai
province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
near the city of Dongying in Shandong
Shandong
province. The Yellow River
River
basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi). Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history
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List Of Neolithic Cultures Of China
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThis is a list of Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures of China
China
that have been unearthed by archaeologists. They are sorted in chronological order from earliest to latest and are followed by a schematic visualization of these cultures. It would seem that the definition of Neolithic
Neolithic
in China
China
is undergoing changes
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Yangtze River
The Yangtze
Yangtze
(English: /ˈjæŋtsi/ or /ˈjɑːŋtsi/), which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) and its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population.[7] The Yangtze
Yangtze
is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world. The English name Yangtze
Yangtze
derives from the Chinese name Yángzǐ Jiāng ( listen), which refers to the lowest 435 km of the river between Nanjing
Nanjing
and Shanghai
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