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History Of Biomechanics
Biomechanics
Biomechanics
is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles,[1] using the methods of mechanics.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Method 3 Subfields3.1 Sports biomechanics 3.2 Continuum biomechanics 3.3 Biofluid mechanics 3.4 Biotribology 3.5 Comparative biomechanics 3.6 Plant biomechanics 3.7 Computational biomechanics4 History4.1 Antiquity 4.2 Renaissance 4.3 Industrial era5
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Biomechanical (other)
Biomechanical may refer to:Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organismsSports biomechanics, a quantitative based study and analysis of professional athletes and sports' activities in generalBiomechanics (Meyerhold), system of actor training developed by Vsevolod Meyerhold Biomechanical art, the style of H. R
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Digital Filter
In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal. This is in contrast to the other major type of electronic filter, the analog filter, which is an electronic circuit operating on continuous-time analog signals. A digital filter system usually consists of an analog-to-digital converter to sample the input signal, followed by a microprocessor and some peripheral components such as memory to store data and filter coefficients etc. Finally a digital-to-analog converter to complete the output stage. Program Instructions (software) running on the microprocessor implement the digital filter by performing the necessary mathematical operations on the numbers received from the ADC
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Ergonomy
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
(commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. [1] The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities
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Implant (medicine)
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue. The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone, or apatite depending on what is the most functional.[1] In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants
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Orthotics
Orthotics
Orthotics
(Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system".[1] An orthotist is the primary medical clinician responsible for the prescription, manufacture and management of orthoses
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Prosthesis
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment"[1]) is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions. Prosthetics are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.[2] Prosthetic amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a prosthetist and an inter-disciplinary team of health care professionals including psychiatrists, surgeons, physical therapists, and occupational therapists
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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)
Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma. Three common neuropsychological problems treatable with rehabilitation are attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, and spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation research and practices are a fertile area for clinical neuropsychologists and others.Contents1 Methods 2 Concussion 3 See also 4 ReferencesMethods[edit] Speech therapy, occupational therapy, and other methods that "exercise" specific brain functions are used
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Sports Biomechanics
Sports biomechanics is a quantitative based study and analysis of professional athletes and sports activities in general.[1] It can simply be described as the physics of sports. In this subfield of biomechanics the laws of mechanics are applied in order to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance through mathematical modeling, computer simulation and measurement. Biomechanics
Biomechanics
is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of mechanics (the branch of physics involving analysis of the actions of forces)
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Allometry
Allometry
Allometry
is the study of the relationship of body size to shape,[1] anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour,[2] first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892,[3] by D'Arcy Thompson
D'Arcy Thompson
in 1917 in On Growth and Form[4] and
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Sports Injury
Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children alone that participate in some form of organized sport. About 3 million avid sports competitors 14 years of age and under experience sports injuries annually, which causes some loss of time of participation in the sport.[1] The leading cause of death involving sports-related injuries, although rare, is brain injuries. When injured the two main systems affected are the nervous and vascular systems. The origins in the body where numbness and tingling occurs upon sports injuries are usually the first signs of the body telling you that the body was impacted.[2] Thus, when an athlete complains of numbness and especially tingling, the key to a diagnosis is to obtain a detailed history of the athlete’s acquired symptom perception, determine the effect the injury had on the body and its processes, and then establish the prime treatment method
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Strain Gauge
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate.[1] As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor.Contents1 Physical operation 2 Gauge factor 3 In practice3.1 Variations in temperature4 Errors and compensation 5 Other types 6 Mechanical types 7 See also 8 ReferencesPhysical operation[edit]An unmounted resistive foil strain gauge.A strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductor's geometry
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Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
has now subdivided into a wide range of subfields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, robotics, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics
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Computer Science
Computer science
Computer science
is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines
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Human Musculoskeletal System
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system[1]) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage,[2] tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs.[3] The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.[4] This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body
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Gait Analysis
Gait
Gait
analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specifically the study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the muscles.[1] Gait
Gait
analysis is used to assess and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk.[2] It is also commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. The study encompasses quantification (i.e
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