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History Of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
England
was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
until the Norman conquest in 1066. It consisted of various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 927 when it was united as the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
by King Æthelstan (r. 927–939). It became part of the North Sea Empire
North Sea Empire
of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
in the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from continental Europe and their cultural descendants
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Anglo-Saxons
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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History Of The English Language
English is a West Germanic
West Germanic
language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands, displacing the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
that previously predominated. The Old English
Old English
of the Anglo-Saxon era developed into Middle English, which was spoken from the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
era to the late 15th century. A significant influence on the shaping of Middle English
Middle English
came from contact with the North Germanic languages
North Germanic languages
spoken by the Scandinavians who conquered and colonized parts of Britain during the 8th and 9th centuries; this contact led to much lexical borrowing and grammatical simplification
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Anglo-Saxon England (journal)
Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of various aspects of history, language, and culture in Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. It has been published since 1972 by Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
and is available in print and digital form. Every volume is concluded with a bibliography giving an overview of the past year's work in Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
studies. Its current editors are Malcolm R. Godden (University of Oxford) and Simon Keynes (University of Cambridge). Previous editors include Peter A. Clemoes and Michael Lapidge. Volumes[edit] See also[edit] Old English
Old English
NewsletterExternal links[edit]Official website   This article related to the history of England is a stub
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Tudor Dynasty
The House of Tudor
House of Tudor
was an English royal house of Welsh origin,[1] descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and its realms, including their ancestral Wales
Wales
and the Lordship of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland
(later the Kingdom of Ireland) from 1485 until 1603, with five monarchs in that period. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and were succeeded by the House of Stuart. The first Tudor monarch, Henry VII, descended through his mother from a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster
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Norman Conquest Of England
The Norman conquest of England
England
(in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson. The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford, but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Stamford Bridge
on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England
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History Of Education In England
The history of education in England is documented from Saxon settlement of England, and the setting up of the first cathedral schools in 597 and 604. Before then education was an oral affair, or followed the Roman model in diaspora and integrated families.[1] During the Middle Ages, schools were established to teach Latin grammar to the sons of the aristocracy. Two universities were established in affiliation with the church: the University of Oxford, followed by the University of Cambridge, to assist in training the clergy. A reformed system of "free grammar schools" was established in the reign of Edward VI
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Kingdom Of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,[1] was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands. It also did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Counties Of England
The counties of England
England
are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England
England
outside Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. These counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009, 27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council
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Timeline Of English History
This is a timeline of English history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in England
England
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of England. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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History Of Durham
County Durham (/ˈdʌrəm/, locally /ˈdɜːrəm/) is a county[N 1] in North East England.[2] The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. The largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south.[3] The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, and so includes places such as Gateshead, Jarrow, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages the county was an ecclesiastical centre; this was mainly due to the shrine of St Cuthbert being in Durham Cathedral, and the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a heavy railway industry, particularly in the southeast of the county in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton
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English Overseas Possessions
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonized, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England
England
during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
created the Kingdom of Great Britain
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The Protectorate
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
were governed by a Lord Protector
Lord Protector
as a republic. The Protectorate began in 1653 when, following the dissolution of the Rump Parliament and then Barebone's Parliament, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was appointed Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the Commonwealth under the terms of the Instrument of Government. In 1659 the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved by the Committee of Safety as Richard Cromwell, who had succeeded his father as Lord Protector, was unable to keep control of the Parliament and the Army
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Political History Of The United Kingdom (1945–present)
When Britain emerged victorious from the Second World War, the Labour Party under Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
came to power and created a comprehensive welfare state, with the establishment of the National Health Service giving free healthcare to all British citizens, and other reforms to benefits. The Bank of England, railways, heavy industry, and coal mining were all nationalised. The most controversial issue was nationalisation of steel, which was profitable unlike the others. Economic recovery was slow, housing was in short supply, bread was rationed along with many necessities in short supply. It was an "age of austerity". American loans and Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
grants kept the economy afloat
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Social History Of The United Kingdom (1945–present)
The social history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from 1945 began with the aftermath of the Second World War. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was one of the victors, but victory was costly in human and economic terms. Thus, the late 1940s was a time of austerity and economic restraint, which gave way to prosperity in the 1950s. The Labour Party held control from 1945–51, and granted independence to India in 1947. Most of the other major colonies became independent in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Britain collaborated closely with the United States during the Cold War
Cold War
after 1947, and in 1949 helped form NATO
NATO
as a military alliance against Soviet Communism
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