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History Of Analytical Chemistry
Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.[1] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods.[2] Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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Analytical Chemistry (journal)
Analytical Chemistry
Chemistry
is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1929 by the American Chemical Society. It is abstracted and indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, CAB International, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. According to the Journal Citation Reports, it has a 2014 impact factor of 5.636.[1] The editor-in-chief is Jonathan V. Sweedler (University of Illinois). See also[edit]List of chemistry journalsReferences[edit]^ "Analytical Chemistry". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
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Gold
Gold
Gold
is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium
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Forensic Chemistry
Forensic chemistry
Forensic chemistry
is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene.[1] Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform
Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene
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Environmental Chemistry
Environmental chemistry
Environmental chemistry
is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It should not be confused with green chemistry, which seeks to reduce potential pollution at its source. It can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity and biological activity on these. Environmental chemistry
Environmental chemistry
is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science. Environmental chemistry
Environmental chemistry
is the study of chemical processes occurring in the environment which are impacted by humankind's activities
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Clinical Chemistry
Clinical chemistry
Clinical chemistry
(also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry (not to be confused with medicinal chemistry, which involves basic research for drug development). The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical reaction tests for various components of blood and urine. In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. There are now many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities. Most current laboratories are now highly automated to accommodate the high workload typical of a hospital laboratory
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Histology
Histology[help 1] also microanatomy [1] is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy. It is commonly studied using a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of staining. Histology
Histology
is an essential tool of biology and medicine. Histopathology, the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool in anatomical pathology, since accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases usually requires histopathological examination of samples
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Tunable Laser
A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner. While all laser gain media allow small shifts in output wavelength, only a few types of lasers allow continuous tuning over a significant wavelength range. There are many types and categories of tunable lasers. They exist in the gas, liquid, and solid state
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Quality Assurance
Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000
ISO 9000
defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled".[1] This defect prevention in quality assurance differs subtly from defect detection and rejection in quality control, and has been referred to as a shift left as it focuses on quality earlier in the process i.e
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Copper
Copper
Copper
is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Chemical Test
In chemistry, a chemical test is a qualitative or quantitative procedure designed to identify, quantify, or characterise a chemical compound or chemical group.Contents1 Purposes 2 Biochemical tests2.1 Reducing sugars 2.2 Proteins and polypeptides3 Organic tests 4 Inorganic tests 5 See also 6 ReferencesPurposes[edit] Chemical testing might have a variety of purposes, such as:Determine if, or verify that, the requirements of a specification, regulation, or contract are met Decide if a new product development program is on track: Demonstrate proof of concept Demonstrate the utility of a proposed patent Determine the interactions of a sample with other known substances Determine the composition of a sample Provide standard data for other scientific, medical, and Quality assurance functions Validate suitability for end-use Provide a basis for Technical communication Provide a technical means of comparison of several options Provide evidence in legal
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Acid Test (gold)
An acid test is any qualitative chemical or metallurgical assay which uses acid; most commonly, and historically, the use of a strong acid to distinguish gold from base metals. Figuratively, acid test is any definitive test for some attribute, e.g. of a person's character, or of the performance of product. Chemistry[edit] Testing for gold with acid focuses on the fact that gold is a noble metal which is resistant to change by corrosion, oxidation or acid. The acid test for gold is to rub the gold-colored item on black stone, which will leave an easily visible mark. The mark is tested by applying aqua fortis (nitric acid), which dissolves the mark of any item that is not gold. If the mark remains, it is tested by applying aqua regia (nitric acid and hydrochloric acid). If the mark is removed, then this test dissolves the gold, proving the item to be genuine gold
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Kastle-Meyer Test
The Kastle–Meyer test is a presumptive blood test, first described in 1903,[1] in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect the possible presence of hemoglobin. It relies on the peroxidase-like activity of hemoglobin in blood to catalyze the oxidation of phenolphthalin (the colorless reduced form of phenolphthalein) into phenolphthalein, which is visible as a bright pink color. The Kastle–Meyer test is a form of catalytic blood test, one of the two main classes of forensic tests commonly employed by crime labs in the chemical identification of blood
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Separation Processes
A separation process is a method to achieve any phenomenon that converts a mixture of chemical substance into two or more distinct product mixtures, which may be referred to as mixture,[1] at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents. In some cases, a separation may fully divide the mixture into its pure constituents. Separations differ in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a mixture. They are often classified according to the particular differences they use to achieve separation. Usually there is only physical movement and no substantial chemical modification. If no single difference can be used to accomplish a desired separation, multiple operations will often be performed in combination to achieve the desired end. With a few exceptions, elements or compounds are naturally found in an impure state
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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