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History
HISTORY (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory . It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians . History
History
can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present
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Memory
MEMORY is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory
Memory
is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems , it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working ) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007). This can be related to the neuron . The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to with various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor
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Synthetic Language
In linguistic typology , a SYNTHETIC LANGUAGE is a language with a high morpheme -per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language . This linguistic classification is largely independent of morpheme -usage classifications (such as fusional , agglutinative , etc.), although there is a common tendency for agglutinative languages to exhibit synthetic properties. CONTENTS * 1 Synthetic and analytic languages * 2 Examples * 3 Forms of synthesis * 3.1 Derivational synthesis * 3.2 Relational synthesis * 4 Degrees of synthesis * 4.1 More analytic * 4.2 Rather analytic * 4.3 Rather synthetic * 4.4 Very synthetic * 4.5 Polysynthetic * 4.6 Oligosynthetic * 5 See also * 6 External links SYNTHETIC AND ANALYTIC LANGUAGESSynthetic languages compose (synthesize) multiple concepts into each word, while analytic languages break up (analyze) concepts into separate words
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Umbrella Term
An UMBRELLA TERM is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts that all fall under a single common category . For example, cryptology is an umbrella term that encompasses cryptography and cryptanalysis , among other fields. Similarly, an umbrella organization is a central and coordinating body representing a number of smaller, separate bodies. A BLANKET TERM is a closely related word or phrase that is used to describe multiple groups of related things. The degree of relation may vary or have a minimal relationship, but blanket terms often trade specificity for ease of use. In other words, a blanket term, by itself, gives little detail about the things that it describes or the relationships between them, but it is easy to say and remember. Blanket terms may originate as slang but eventually become integrated into the general vocabulary
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Legend
A LEGEND is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and demonstrating human values, and which possesses certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude . Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles . Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and vital, and realistic . Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted. The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded. A modern folklorist 's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R
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Nikolaos Gyzis
NIKOLAOS GYZIS (Greek : Νικόλαος Γύζης Greek pronunciation: ; 1 March 1842 – 4 January 1901) was considered one of Greece
Greece
's most important 19th-century painters. He was most famous for his work Eros and the Painter , his first genre painting. It was auctioned in May 2006 at Bonhams
Bonhams
in London
London
, being last exhibited in Greece
Greece
in 1928. He was the major representative of the so-called " Munich School
Munich School
", the major 19th-century Greek art movement. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE Gyzis Nikolaos - Archangel, study for the Foundation of the Faith Gyzis was born in the village of Sklavochori, on the island of Tinos which has a long artistic history
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Greek Historiography
GREEK HISTORIOGRAPHY refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history . By the 5th century BC it became an integral part of Ancient Greek literature and held a prestigious place in later Byzantine literature . The historical period of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography , while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals , chronicles , king lists , and pragmatic epigraphy . Herodotus
Herodotus
is widely known as the "father of history", his Histories being eponymous of the entire field
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Ancrene Wisse
ANCRENE WISSE (also known as the ANCRENE RIWLE or GUIDE FOR ANCHORESSES) is an anonymous monastic rule (or manual) for female anchorites ("anchoresses") written in the early 13th century. The work consists of eight parts. Parts 1 and 8 deal with what is called the "Outer Rule" (relating to the anchoresses' exterior life), while Parts 2–7 deal with the "Inner Rule" (relating to the anchoresses' interior life). The didactic and devotional material is supplemented by illustrations and anecdotes, many drawn from everyday life. CONTENTS * 1 Community * 2 Language and textual criticism * 3 Surviving manuscripts * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Editions * 7 Further reading * 8 External links COMMUNITYThe adoption of an anchorite life was widespread all over medieval Europe, and was especially popular in England. By the early thirteenth century, the lives of anchorites or anchoresses was considered distinct from that of hermits
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Cultural Heritage
CULTURAL HERITAGE is the legacy of physical science artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Cultural heritage
Cultural heritage
includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity ). The deliberate act of keeping cultural heritage from the present for the future is known as preservation (American English) or conservation (British English), though these terms may have more specific or technical meaning in the same contexts in the other dialect
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John Gower
JOHN GOWER (/ˈɡaʊər/ ; c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet
Pearl Poet
, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
. He is remembered primarily for three major works, the Mirour de l'Omme, Vox Clamantis , and Confessio Amantis , three long poems written in French, Latin, and English respectively, which are united by common moral and political themes. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Chaucer influence * 4 Manuscripts * 5 List of works * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links LIFEFew details are known of Gower's early life. He was probably born into a family which held properties in Kent and Suffolk . :299 Stanley and Smith use a linguistic argument to conclude that "Gower’s formative years were spent partly in Kent and partly in Suffolk"
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Confessio Amantis
CONFESSIO AMANTIS ("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower
John Gower
, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems. According to its prologue, it was composed at the request of Richard II . It stands with the works of Chaucer , Langland , and the Pearl poet as one of the great works of late 14th-century English literature. The Index of Middle English Verse shows that in the era before the printing press it was one of the most-often copied manuscripts (59 copies) along with Canterbury Tales (72 copies) and Piers Plowman
Piers Plowman
(63 copies). In genre it is usually considered a poem of consolation, a medieval form inspired by Boethius ' Consolation of Philosophy and typified by works such as Pearl
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Storytelling
STORYTELLING is the social and cultural activity of sharing stories , often with improvisation , theatrics , or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment , education, cultural preservation and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot , characters and narrative point of view . The term 'storytelling' is used in a narrow sense to refer specifically to oral storytelling and also in a looser sense to refer to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story
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Homeric Hymns
The HOMERIC HYMNS are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods. The hymns are "Homeric" in the sense that they employ the same epic meter—dactylic hexameter —as the Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey
Odyssey
, use many similar formulas and are couched in the same dialect. They were uncritically attributed to Homer
Homer
himself in antiquity—from the earliest written reference to them, Thucydides
Thucydides
(iii.104)—and the label has stuck. "The whole collection, as a collection, is Homeric in the only useful sense that can be put upon the word;" A. W
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Old Welsh
OLD WELSH (Welsh : Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh . The preceding period, from the time Welsh became distinct from Common Brittonic around 550, has been called "Primitive" or "Archaic Welsh". CONTENTS* 1 Texts * 1.1 Surrexit Memorandum * 1.1.1 Text * 1.1.2 Translation * 1.1.3 Features * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links TEXTSThe oldest surviving text entirely in Old Welsh is understood to be that on a gravestone now in Tywyn church, the Cadfan Stone , thought to date from the 7th century. A key body of Old Welsh text also survives in glosses and marginalia from around 900 in the Juvencus Manuscript
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Ephebos
EPHEBOS (ἔφηβος) (often in the plural EPHEBOI), also anglicised as EPHEBE (plural: EPHEBES) or archaically EPHEBUS (plural: EPHEBI), is a Greek word for an adolescent or a social status reserved for that age in Antiquity . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Greece * 1.2 Rome * 2 Sculpture * 3 See also * 4 Sources and references * 5 External links HISTORYGREECE Blond Kouros\'s Head of the Acropolis museum in Athens . Though the word can simply refer to the adolescent age of young men of training age, its main use is for the members, exclusively from that age group, of an official institution (ephebeia) that saw to building them into citizens, but especially training them as soldiers, sometimes already sent into the field; the Greek city state (polis ) mainly depended, as the Roman republic before Gaius Marius ' reform, on its militia of citizens for defense
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George Santayana
JORGE AGUSTíN NICOLáS RUIZ DE SANTAYANA Y BORRáS, known in English as GEORGE SANTAYANA (/ˌsæntiˈænə/ or /-ˈɑːnə/ ; December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. Originally from Spain, Santayana was raised and educated in the United States from the age of eight and identified himself as an American, although he always kept a valid Spanish passport. He wrote in English and is generally considered an American man of letters . At the age of forty-eight, Santayana left his position at Harvard
Harvard
and returned to Europe permanently, never to return to the United States. His last wish was to be buried in the Spanish pantheon in Rome. Santayana is popularly known for aphorisms , such as "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it", "Only the dead have seen the end of war", and the definition of beauty as "pleasure objectified"
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