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Hip Hop Music
HIP HOP MUSIC, also called HIP-HOP or RAP MUSIC, is a music genre developed in the United States
United States
by inner-city African Americans in the 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping , a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing /rapping , DJing /scratching with turntables, break dancing , and graffiti writing . Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records (or synthesized beats and sounds ), and rhythmic beatboxing . While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture
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Griots
A GRIOT (/ˈɡri.oʊ/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ), JALI or JELI (djeli or djéli in French spelling) is a West African historian, storyteller, praise singer, poet and/or musician. The griot is a repository of oral tradition and is often seen as a societal leader due to his or her traditional position as an advisor to royal personages. As a result of the former of these two functions, he or she is sometimes also called a bard . According to Paul Oliver in his book Savannah Syncopators, "Though has to know many traditional songs without error, he must also have the ability to extemporize on current events, chance incidents and the passing scene. His wit can be devastating and his knowledge of local history formidable". Although they are popularly known as "praise singers", griots may use their vocal expertise for gossip, satire, or political comment
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Music Sequencer
A MUSIC SEQUENCER (or simply SEQUENCER) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music , by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically CV/Gate , MIDI , or Open Sound Control (OSC), and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins
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Synthesizer
A SYNTHESIZER (often abbreviated as SYNTH, also spelled SYNTHESISER) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones . Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano , Hammond organ , flute , vocals ; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres . They are often played with a musical keyboard , but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers , instrument controllers , fingerboards , guitar synthesizers , wind controllers , and electronic drums . Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules , and are controlled via USB
USB
, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds)
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Breakbeat Hardcore
BREAKBEAT HARDCORE (also called OLDSKOOL RAVE HARDCORE) is a genre of electronic dance music and a derivative of acid house and techno music, of the late 1980s and early 1990s, that combines four-on-the-floor rhythms with breakbeats , and is associated with the UK rave scene. In addition to the including of breakbeats the genre also features shuffled drum machine patterns, upbeat piano rolls and old-school hoover sounds. CONTENTS * 1 Rave scene * 2 Effect and fragmentation * 3 Selected information * 3.1 Record labels * 3.2 Notable releases * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources RAVE SCENE Main article: Rave The scene was driven around the M25 motorway ( London
London
's orbital motorway), and its audience was mainly urban teenagers and lower middle-class suburban teenagers with cars
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Spoken Word
SPOKEN WORD is a performance art that is word based. It is an oral art that focuses on the aesthetics of word play and intonation and voice inflection . It is a 'catchall' which includes any kind of poetry recited aloud, including hip hop , jazz poetry , poetry slams , traditional poetry readings and can include comedy routines and 'prose monologues '. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Development within the United States * 1.2 International development * 2 Competitions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Spoken word has existed for many years. Long before writing, through a cycle of practicing, listening and memorizing, each language drew on its resources of sound structure for aural patterns that made spoken poetry very different from ordinary discourse and easier to commit to memory
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Keyboard Instrument
A KEYBOARD INSTRUMENT is a musical instrument played using a keyboard , a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano , organ , and various electronic keyboards , including synthesizers and digital pianos . Other keyboard instruments include celestas , which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, and carillons , which are usually housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard often refers to keyboard-style synthesizers . Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may also be used to control dynamics , phrasing , shading, articulation , and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be firmly established
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Scat Singing
In vocal jazz , SCAT SINGING is vocal improvisation with wordless vocables, nonsense syllables or without words at all. In scat singing, the singer improvises melodies and rhythms using the voice as an instrument rather than a speaking medium. CONTENTS* 1 Characteristics * 1.1 Structure and syllable choice * 1.2 Humor * 2 History * 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Later development * 2.3 Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
* 2.4 Vocal bass * 2.5 Use in hip hop * 3 Music historical explanations * 4 Critical assessment * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Works cited * 9 External links CHARACTERISTICSSTRUCTURE AND SYLLABLE CHOICEThough scat singing is improvised, the melodic lines are often variations on scale and arpeggio fragments, stock patterns and riffs , as is the case with instrumental improvisers. As well, scatting usually incorporates musical structure
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Drum Machine
A DRUM MACHINE is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums , cymbals , other percussion instruments and often basslines . Drum machines are most commonly associated with electronic music genres such as house music , but are also used in many other genres. They are usually used when session drummers are not available or if the production cannot afford the cost of a drummer. Also, many modern drum machines can also produce unique sounds, as well as allowing the user to compose unique drum beats and patterns that might be difficult to perform by a human drummer. Most modern drum machines are sequencers with a sample playback (rompler ) or synthesizer component that specializes in the reproduction of drum timbres
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Freestyle Rap
FREESTYLE is a style of improvisation with or without instrumental beats, in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure It is similar to other improvisational music , such as jazz ( Myka 9 of Freestyle Fellowship describes it as being "like a jazz solo" ), where there is a lead instrumentalist acting as the improviser and the rest of the band providing the beat. Improv/freestyles are improvised in this way. CONTENTS * 1 Original definition * 2 Newer definition * 3 Methodology of improvised freestyle * 4 Types of freestyles * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading ORIGINAL DEFINITIONIn the book How to Rap
How to Rap
, J-lyric and Myka 9 note that originally a freestyle was a spit on no particular subject – J-lyric said, "in the 2000's when we said freestyle rap, that meant that it was a rhyme that you kick that was free of style..
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New York City
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York
York
(Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland Province of New York SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council
New York City Council
• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Big Beat
BIG BEAT is an electronic music genre that usually uses heavy breakbeats and synthesizer-generated loops and patterns - common to acid house . The term has been used since the mid-1990s by the British music press to describe music by artists such as The Prodigy , The Chemical Brothers , Fatboy Slim , The Crystal Method
The Crystal Method
, Propellerheads , Cut La Roc , Basement Jaxx
Basement Jaxx
and Groove Armada
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The Dozens
THE DOZENS is a game of spoken words between two contestants, common in Black communities of the United States, where participants insult each other until one gives up. It is customary for the Dozens to be played in front of an audience of bystanders, who encourage the participants to reply with more egregious insults to heighten the tension and, consequently, to be more interesting to watch. It is also known as "blazing", "hiking", "roasting", "capping", "clowning", "ranking", "ragging", "rekking", "crumming", "sounding", "checkin", "joning", "woofing", "wolfing", "sigging", or "signifying", while the insults themselves are known as "snaps". Comments in the game focus on the opposite player's intelligence, appearance, competency, social status, financial situation, and disparaging remarks about the other player's family members—mothers in particular ("yo′ mama...") —are common
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Signifyin'
SIGNIFYIN\' (sometimes written "SIGNIFYIN(G)") (vernacular), is a form of wordplay. It is a practice in African-American
African-American
culture involving a verbal strategy of indirection that exploits the gap between the denotative and figurative meanings of words. A simple example would be insulting someone to show affection. Other names for signifyin' include: "Dropping lugs, joaning, sounding, capping, snapping, dissing, busting, bagging, janking, ranking, toasting, woofing, putting on, or cracking." Signifyin'
Signifyin'
directs attention to the connotative , context-bound significance of words, which is accessible only to those who share the cultural values of a given speech community. The expression comes from stories about the Signifying Monkey , a trickster figure said to have originated during slavery in the United States
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Jazz
JAZZ is a music genre that originated in African American
African American
communities of New Orleans
New Orleans
, United States
United States
, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime . Since the 1920s Jazz Age
Jazz Age
, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African American and European American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz
Jazz
is characterized by swing and blue notes , call and response vocals , polyrhythms and improvisation . Jazz
Jazz
has roots in West African cultural and musical expression , and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime , as well as European military band music
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