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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism . It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term _Hindu_ has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus ) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu- Muslim wars. A sense of Hindu identity and the term _Hindu_ appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages
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Hindu (other)
HINDU refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. HINDU may also refer to: * The Hindu
Hindu
, an Indian English language newspaper * The Hindu
Hindu
(Tamil) , Tamil daily newspaper published in India * The Hindu
Hindu
(film) , or Sabaka, 1954 American film * The Hindu
Hindu
Group , Indian publishing company * Hindu
Hindu
Kush , the main mountain range in Afghanistan and Pakistan * Epic India or a person or attribute thereof * Indus River
Indus River
or Hindu * Hindu, an adherent of Hinduism * Hindu, an adherent of any Indian religion * Hindu, a person with ethnic roots in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Hindu, an inhabitant of Hindustan
Hindustan
PLACES * Hindu, Hiiu County , a village in Emmaste Parish, Hiiu County, Estonia * Hindu, Orissaare Parish
Hindu, Orissaare Parish
, a village in Orissaare Parish, Saare County, Estonia * Hindu, Salme Parish
Hindu, Salme Parish
, a village in Salme Parish, Saare County, Estonia * Hindu, California , a former settlement in the U.S
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Hindus (horse)
Broadway Stakes (1900) TRIPLE CROWN WINS: PREAKNESS STAKES (1900) HINDUS (foaled in 1897) was an American Thoroughbred
Thoroughbred
racehorse is best known for winning the 1900 Preakness Stakes . Owned and bred by George J. Long, he was sired by Volante. Hindus was out of the mare Ignite, a daughter of Woodlands. CONTENTS * 1 Preakness Stakes * 2 Racing career * 3 Breeding * 4 References PREAKNESS STAKESThe twentyfifth running of the Preakness Stakes was run on Tuesday, May 29, 1900 at Gravesend Race Track
Gravesend Race Track
on Coney Island, New York . On that day Hindus went off as the longest shot on the board at odds of 15-1 in the field of ten stakes winning colts. In that race he broke well with a good start in fourth place under jockey Henry Spencer. Rounding the first turn Hindus dropped back to next to last in eighth place under a strong hold by Spencer. As the race progressed, Hindus laid back in waiting down the entire back stretch and around the final turn. Near the top of the lane Hindus began a big rush and passed all rivals in the last one sixteenth of a mile. In the end Hindus prevailed at the wire by a short head over runner-up Sarmatian. Sarmation listed at 6-1 outdistanced third-place finisher Ten Candles by three full lengths. The final time for the one mile and one sixteenth race on dirt was 1:48-2/5 over a fast track
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Hindoo (other)
HINDOO is an archaic spelling of Hindu
Hindu
, and one whose use today may be considered derogatory. HINDOO may also refer to: * Manoj Hindoo , Braj Bhasha Actor
Actor
* Hindoo (horse) , a racehorse * Hindoo, California * Hindoo style , a Western style of architecture in which Indian motifs are used * Hindoo (ship) a Norwegian bark wrecked and beached on Dog Island, Florida SEE ALSO * Hindoo Stuart , an officer in the British Army in India This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title HINDOO. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hindoo_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hindi
HINDI ( Devanagari : हिन्दी, IAST : _Hindī_), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari : मानक हिन्दी, IAST : _Mānak Hindī_) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Hindi is an Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language. It is descended from Sanskrit and is considered part of the New Indo-Aryan subgroup. However, it was also influenced, especially in vocabulary, by various other languages including Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, and English. Along with the English language , Hindi written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India . It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India . However, it is not the national language of India . Hindi is the _lingua franca _ of the so-called _ Hindi belt _ in India. Outside India, it is an official language which is known as _ Fiji Hindi _ in Fiji , and is a recognised regional language in Mauritius , Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname . Individually, as a linguistic variety , Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin , Spanish and English
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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History Of Hinduism
HISTORY OF HINDUISM denotes a wide variety of related Hindu denominations native to the Indian Subcontinent , most of whom live in modern-day India , Nepal , Pakistan , Bangladesh and Afghanistan . Adherents are also found in the Indonesian island of Bali . Its history overlaps or coincides with the development of Indian religions since Iron Age India . It has thus been called the "oldest living religion" in the world. Scholars regard Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder or source. The history of Hinduism is often divided into periods of development, with the first period being that of the historical Vedic religion dated from about 1900 BCE to 1400 BCE. The subsequent period, between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions", and a formative period for Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Epic and Early Puranic period, from c. 200 BCE to 500 CE, saw the classical "Golden Age" of Hinduism (c. 320-650 CE), which coincides with the Gupta Empire . In this period the six branches of Hindu philosophy evolved, namely Samkhya , Yoga , Nyaya , Vaisheshika , Mīmāṃsā , and Vedanta
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Hindu Philosophy
VEDANTA * _Advaita _ * _ Vishishtadvaita _ * _ Dvaita Vedanta _ * _ Bhedabheda _ * _ Dvaitadvaita _ * _ Achintya Bheda Abheda _ * _ Shuddhadvaita _ HETERODOX * CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM OTHER SCHOOLS * Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta * Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta *
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Brahman
In Hinduism , BRAHMAN (/brəhmən/ ; ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe . In major schools of Hindu philosophy , it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen , as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas , and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads . The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as _Sat-cit-ānanda _ (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality
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Ishvara
ISHVARA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: ईश्वर, _Īśvara_) is a concept in Hinduism , with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism. In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, _Ishvara_ can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband. In medieval era Hindu
Hindu
texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, _Ishvara_ means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self . In Shaivism
Shaivism
, _Ishvara_ is synonymous with " Shiva
Shiva
", sometimes as _Maheshvara_ or _Parameshvara_ meaning the "Supreme lord", or as an Ishta-deva (personal god). In Vaishnavism , it is synonymous with Vishnu
Vishnu
. In traditional Bhakti
Bhakti
movements, Ishvara
Ishvara
is one or more deities of an individual's preference from Hinduism's polytheistic canon of deities. In modern sectarian movements such as Arya Samaj and Brahmoism , Ishvara
Ishvara
takes the form of a monotheistic God. In Yoga school of Hinduism, it is any "personal deity" or "spiritual inspiration". In Advaita Vedanta school, Ishvara
Ishvara
is a monistic Universal Absolute that connects and is the Oneness in everyone and everything
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Hindu Views On Monotheism
Hinduism
Hinduism
is a religion which incorporates diverse views on the concept of God. Different traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
have different theistic views, and these views have been described by scholars as polytheism , monotheism , henotheism , panentheism , pantheism , monism , agnostic , humanism , atheism or non-theism . Monotheism
Monotheism
is the belief in a single creator God who is almighty, omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent. Hinduism
Hinduism
does not posit or require such a belief, and is considered a non-monotheistic religion by scholars of religion. Many traditions within Hinduism share the Vedic idea of a metaphysical ultimate reality and truth called Brahman
Brahman
instead. According to Jan Gonda , Brahman
Brahman
denoted the "power immanent in the sound, words, verses and formulas of Vedas" in the earliest Vedic texts. The early Vedic religious understanding of Brahman
Brahman
underwent a series of abstractions in the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures that followed the Vedic scriptures. These scriptures would reveal a vast body of insights into the nature of Brahman
Brahman
as originally revealed in the Vedas
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God And Gender In Hinduism
In Hinduism , there are diverse approaches to conceptualizing GOD AND GENDER . Many Hindus focus upon impersonal Absolute ( Brahman ) which is genderless. Other Hindu traditions conceive God as androgynous (both female and male), alternatively as either male or female, while cherishing gender henotheism , that is without denying the existence of other Gods in either gender. The Shakti tradition conceives of God as a female. Other Bhakti traditions of Hinduism have both male and female gods. In ancient and medieval Indian mythology, each masculine deva of the Hindu pantheon is partnered with a feminine devi
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Ātman (Hinduism)
ĀTMAN (/ˈɑːtmən/ ) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means inner self or soul . In Hindu
Hindu
philosophy , especially in the Vedanta school of Hinduism , Ātman is the first principle , the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain liberation (moksha) , a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana ), which is to realize that one's true self (Ātman) is identical with the transcendent self Brahman . The six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe that there is Ātman (soul, self) in every being, a major point of difference with Buddhism , which does not believe that there is either soul or self
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Maya (illusion)
MAYA (IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context. In ancient Vedic literature, Māyā literally implies extraordinary power and wisdom. In later Vedic texts and modern literature dedicated to Indian traditions, Māyā connotes a "magic show, an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem". Māyā is also a spiritual concept connoting "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal", and the "power or the principle that conceals the true character of spiritual reality". In Buddhism, Maya is the name of Gautama Buddha's mother. In Hinduism , Maya is also an epithet for goddess, and the name of a manifestation of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, the goddess of "wealth, prosperity and love". Maya is also a name for girls
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Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. _karma_; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma;) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
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Samsara
SAṃSāRA is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It also refers to the theory of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of all Indian religions . _Saṃsāra_ is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation , and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence". The concept of _Saṃsāra_ has roots in the Vedic literature , but the theory is not discussed there. It appears in developed form, but without mechanistic details, in the early Upanishads . The full exposition of the _Saṃsāra_ doctrine is found in Sramanic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism , as well as the various schools of Hindu philosophy , after about the mid 1st millennium BCE. The _Saṃsāra_ doctrine is tied to the Karma theory of Indian religions and the liberation from _Saṃsāra_ has been at the core of the spiritual quest of Indian traditions, as well as their internal disagreements. The liberation from _Saṃsāra_ is called Moksha , Nirvana , Mukti or Kaivalya
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