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Hindi Language
HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Hindī), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India
India

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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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International Alphabet Of Sanskrit Transliteration
The INTERNATIONAL ALPHABET OF SANSKRIT TRANSLITERATION (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan , William Jones , Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script. It is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars
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Standard Language
A STANDARD LANGUAGE or STANDARD VARIETY may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization. Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects spoken in the centers of commerce and government , where a need arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs. Standardization
Standardization
typically involves a fixed orthography, codification in authoritative grammars and dictionaries and public acceptance of these standards. A standard written language is sometimes termed by the German word Schriftsprache. A pluricentric language has multiple interacting standard varieties. Examples include English , French , Portuguese , German , Korean , Spanish , Swedish , Armenian and Chinese . Monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese , have only one standardized version
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Register (sociolinguistics)
In linguistics , a REGISTER is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed grammar than in an informal setting—such as pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choosing more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refraining from using words considered nonstandard, such as ain\'t . As with other types of language variation, there tends to be a spectrum of registers rather than a discrete set of obviously distinct varieties—numerous registers could be identified, with no clear boundaries between them
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Central Hindi Directorate
The CENTRAL HINDI DIRECTORATE (केन्द्रीय हिन्दी निदेशालय Kendriya Hindi Nideshalaya), New Delhi
New Delhi
is the department, under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (India) , responsible for promotion of Standard Hindi . It also regulates the use of Devanagari
Devanagari
script and Hindi spelling in India
India
. In keeping with the instructions of Article 351 of the Constitution of India, the Central Hindi Directorate
Central Hindi Directorate
of 1 March 1960 was established. There are four regional offices situated at Chennai
Chennai
, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, Guwahati
Guwahati
and Kolkata
Kolkata

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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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Official Language
An OFFICIAL LANGUAGE is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction . Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law", the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government. Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages . Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Seth Govind Das
SETH GOVIND DAS (16 October 1896 – 18 June 1974) was a freedom fighter and a distinguished parliamentarian. He belonged to the famous Maheshwari merchant family of Raja Gokuldas of Jabalpur . The family began as the banking firm of Sevaram Khushalchand, one of the "great firms" as termed by T.A. Timberg . He was also a famous Hindi
Hindi
author. He is well known for his support of Hindi
Hindi
as the national language of India. He represented Jabalpur in the Indian Parliament from 1947 to 1974. He was a close associate and follower of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
. He was jailed in Damoh for eight months by British, where he wrote four plays ‘Prakash’ (social), ‘Kartavya’ (mythological), ‘Navras’ (philosophical) and a ‘Spardha’(one act play)
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Constitution Of India
The CONSTITUTION OF INDIA is the supreme law of India
India
. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
, the chairman of the Drafting Committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect. It imparts constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy , as it is not created by the Parliament but, by a constituent assembly, and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble . Parliament cannot override the constitution . It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950
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Lingua Franca
A LINGUA FRANCA (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Mauritius
Coordinates : 20°12′S 57°30′E / 20.2°S 57.5°E / -20.2; 57.5 Republic of Mauritius République de Maurice (French ) Repiblik Moris ( Mauritian creole ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici" (Latin ) "Star and Key of the Indian Ocean" ANTHEM: Motherland Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
(excluding Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin Island) Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
labelled in black; Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin are claimed by Mauritius
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