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Hikikomori
In Japan, hikikomori (Japanese: ひきこもり or 引き籠り, lit. "pulling inward, being confined", i.e., "acute social withdrawal") are reclusive adolescents or adults who withdraw from social life, often seeking extreme degrees of isolation and confinement. Hikikomori
Hikikomori
refers to both the phenomenon in general and the recluses themselves
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Japan
Japan
Japan
(Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ] (listen) or Nihon [ɲihoꜜɴ] (listen); formally 日本国, Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, lit. 'State of Japan') is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent
Asian continent
and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
in the north to the East China Sea
East China Sea
and the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
in the south. The kanji that make up Japan's name mean 'sun origin', and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan
Japan
is the world's 4th largest island country and encompasses about 6,852 islands
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Pedagogy
Pedagogy
Pedagogy
(/ˈpɛdəˌɡɒdʒi/) is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.[1][2][3] Pedagogy
Pedagogy
informs teacher actions, judgments, and teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students.[4][5] Pedagogy
Pedagogy
includes how the teacher interacts with students and the social and intellectual environment the teacher seeks to establish.[4][5] Its aims may include furthering liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD)[note 1] is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life.[1] Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response.[1][3] These symptoms last for mor
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Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizoid personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder
(/ˈskɪtsɔɪd, ˈskɪdzɔɪd/, often abbreviated as SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy
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Social Anxiety Disorder
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.[1]:15 These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. Physical symptoms often include excessive blushing, excess sweating, trembling, palpitations, and nausea. Stammering may be present, along with rapid speech. Panic attacks can also occur under intense fear and discomfort. Some sufferers may use alcohol or other drugs to reduce fears and inhibitions at social events. It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse
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Takeo Doi
Takeo Doi
Takeo Doi
(土居 健郎, Doi Takeo, March 17, 1920 – July 5, 2009) was a Japanese academic, psychoanalyst and author.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Publications 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Doi was born in Tokyo, Japan
Japan
in 1920. He was a graduate of the University of Tokyo. Career[edit] Doi was Professor Emeritus in the Department of Neuropsychiatry at the University of Tokyo
Tokyo
and a medical adviser to St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo. He was also Director of the National Institute of Mental Health in Japan. He taught at the University of Tokyo (1971-1980) and at International Christian University
International Christian University
(1980-1982)
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Freud
Sigmund Freud
Freud
(/frɔɪd/ FROYD;[3] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.[4] Freud
Freud
was born to Galician Jewish
Jewish
parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[5][6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[7] Freud
Freud
lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud
Freud
left Austria to escape the Nazis
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Shinji Miyadai
Shinji Miyadai ([宮台 真司], Miyadai Shinji, born 3 March 1959 in Sendai, Japan) is a Japanese sociologist and is a professor at Tokyo Metropolitan University.[1] He has a Ph.D from the University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
for his research on Mathematical sociology. Using the method of game theory, he analyzed how the power of the state works in society. He is one of the most outspoken sociologists in Japan, and is currently working on the strategy the Japanese government should adopt for the 21st century.[citation needed] He has been a constant presence in the world of Japanese letters since the publication of his PhD dissertation in 1989. His controversial work on compensated dating in Japan
Japan
was the subject of much discussion after its publication.[2][3] Even though he was a great fan of Takaaki Yoshimoto, Miyadai was planning to become a natural scientist as a teenager
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Anomie
Anomie
Anomie
(/ˈænəˌmi/) is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".[1] It is the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community, e.g., under unruly scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of self-regulatory values.[2][citation needed] It was popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
in his influential book Suicide
Suicide
(1897)
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Status Quo
Status quo is a Latin
Latin
phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.[1] In the sociological sense, it generally applies to maintain or change existing social structure and values.[2] With regard to policy debate, the status quo refers to how conditions are at the time and how the affirmative team can solve these conditions for example "The countries are now trying to maintain a status quo with regards to their nuclear arsenal which will help them if the situation gets any worse."[3] It is the nominal form of the prepositional Latin
Latin
phrase "in statu quo" – literally "in the state in which", which itself is a shortening of the original phrase in statu quo res erant ante bellum, meaning "in the state in which things were before the war". To maintain the status quo is to keep the things the way they presently are
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Autism
Autism
Autism
is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.[3] Parents usually notice signs in the first two or three years of their child's life.[1][3] These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then worsen.[9] Autism
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Japanese Etiquette
The code of etiquette in Japan governs the expectations of social behavior in the country and is considered very important. Like many social cultures, etiquette varies greatly depending on one's status relative to the person in question. Many books instruct readers on its minutiae. Some conventions may be very regional practices, and thus may not exist in all regions of Japan. Some customs have changed over the course of Japanese history
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old Texts New Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in I
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Conformity
Conformity
Conformity
is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.[1] Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity
Conformity
can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone. For example, people tend to follow social norms when eating or watching television, even when alone. People often conform from a desire for security within a group—typically a group of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. This is often referred to as groupthink: a pattern of thought characterized by self-deception, forced manufacture of consent, and conformity to group values and ethics, which ignores realistic appraisal of other courses of action
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