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Hikayat Seri Rama
Hikayat Seri Rama
Rama
is the Malay literary adaptation of the Hindu Ramayana
Ramayana
epic in the form of a hikayat.[1][2] The main story remains the same as the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version but some aspects of it were slightly modified to a local context such as the spelling and pronunciation of names. Numerous branch stories had also been developed as accretions to or extensions of this epic with the upgrading of minor characters to major ones, or the invention of totally new characters. For example, Malay writers and storytellers have produced variations in which Laksmana (Lakshman) plays a larger role, sometimes becoming more important than Rama
Rama
the elder prince much like the Lao Phra Lak Phra Lam
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Malay Literature
Malaysian literature
Malaysian literature
is the collection of literary works produced in the Malay peninsula
Malay peninsula
until 1963 and in Malaysia
Malaysia
thereafter. Malaysian literature is typically written in any of the country's four main languages: Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil. It portrays various aspects of Malaysian life and comprises an important part of the culture of Malaysia. The earliest works of Malaysian literature
Malaysian literature
were transmitted orally in the absence of writing scripts
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Batara Guru
Batara Guru
Guru
(also called Bhattara Guru, Debata Batara Guru
Guru
and Batara Siwa) is the name of a supreme god in Indonesian Hinduism.[1][2] His name is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Bhattaraka which means “noble lord".[3] He has been conceptualized in Southeast Asia as a kind spiritual teacher, the first of all Gurus in Indonesian Hindu texts, mirroring the guru Dakshinamurti aspect of Hindu god Shiva
Shiva
in the Indian subcontinent.[4][5] However, the Bhattara Guru
Guru
has more aspects than the Indian Shiva, as the Indonesian Hindus blended their spirits and heroes with him. Bhattara Guru's wife in Southeast Asia is the same Hindu deity Durga.[6][7] He is considered as a form of Rudra-Shiva,[8] a creator god in mythologies found in Javanese and Balinese Hindu texts, in a manner similar to Brahma-related mythologies in India
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Dravidian Languages
The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan,[2] and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Singapore. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
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South India
Most populous cities (2011)Chennai Bengaluru Hyderabad Trivandrum Coimbatore Madurai Mysore Ernakulam VisakhapatnamArea • Total 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)Population • Total 253,051,953 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)Official languagesTelugu Tamil Kannada Malayalam Urdu Tulu South India
South India
is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana
Telangana
as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi)
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Islamic Revival
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961) Ma'alim fi
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Noah In Islam
Nûh ibn Lamech ibn Methuselah
Methuselah
(Arabic: نوح‎, translit. Nūḥ),[1] known as Noah
Noah
in the Old Testament, is recognized in Islam
Islam
as a prophet and apostle of God
God
(Arabic: الله‎ Allāh). He is an important figure in Islamic
Islamic
tradition, as he is one of the earliest prophets sent by God
God
to mankind.[2] According to Islam, Noah's mission was to save a wicked world, plunged in depravity and sin
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God In Islam
In Islam, God
God
(Arabic: الله‎, translit. Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe. Islam
Islam
emphasizes that God
God
is strictly singular (tawḥīd ): unique (wāḥid ), inherently One (aḥad ),[1] also all-merciful and omnipotent.[2] According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne[3] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[4][5] The Surat 112 Al-'Ikhlās (The Sincerity) says: "He is God, [who is] One. God, the Eternal Refuge
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Shiva
Shiva
Shiva
(/ˈʃiːvə, ˈʃɪ-/; Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.[10][11] Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer of evil and the transformer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu.[1][12] In Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe.[13][14][15] In the goddess tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma
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Mahavishnu
Mahavishnu (Devanāgarī : महाविष्णु) is an aspect of Vishnu, the Absolute which is beyond human comprehension and is beyond all attributes. In Gauḍīya Vaishnavism, a school of Vaiṣṇavism, the Sātvata-tantra describes three different forms, or aspects, of Vishnu
Vishnu
as Mahavishnu, Garbhodakśayī-Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Vishnu. The term Mahavishnu is similar to Brahman and Almighty Absolute Supreme Personality of Godhead. This means that the Absolute truth is realized first as Brahman
Brahman
(impersonal aspect) then as Paramatma (personal aspect) and finally as Bhagavan
Bhagavan
(incarnate perfection). So bhakti (loving devotion) goes to Bhagavan, Krishna
Krishna
or Rama
Rama
for instance (avatars or incarnations of Vishnu, Narayana)
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Adam In Islam
Âdam or Aadam (Arabic: آدم‎, translit. ʾĀdam) is believed to have been the first human being and Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) on Earth, in Islam.[1] Adam's role as the father of the human race is looked upon by Muslims with reverence. Muslims also refer to his wife, Hawa (Arabic: حَـواء‎, Eve), as the "mother of mankind".[2] Muslims see Adam as the first Muslim, as the Qur'an states that all the Prophets preached the same faith of Islam (Arabic: إِسـلام‎, 'Submission' (to God)).[3]Contents1 An overview of creation 2 Significance of Adam 3 Descendants of Adam 4 Adam in the Qur'an 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksAn overview of creation[edit] Synthesizing the Qur'an with hadith and Islamic exegesis can produce the following account. Before God created Adam, He ordered the archangels to bring a handful of dust from the earth. But the earth sought refuge of God, thus the earth will not be distorted
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Brahma
Brahma
Brahma
(/ˈbrəhmɑː/; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism. His consort is the goddess Saraswati[4] and he is the father of the Prajapatis.[5]He is depicted in Hindu
Hindu
iconography with four faces[6] and is also known as Svayambhu (self-born)[7] and Vāgīśa (Lord of speech and the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths).[6][8] Brahma
Brahma
is sometimes identified with the Vedic god Prajapati, as well as linked to Kama
Kama
and Hiranyagarbha (the cosmic egg)[9][10]. He is more prominently mentioned in the post-Vedic Hindu
Hindu
epics and the mythologies in the Puranas
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Parvati
Parvati
Parvati
(Sanskrit: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) or Uma (IAST: Umā) is the Hindu
Hindu
goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.[5][6][7] Known by many other names, she is the gentle and nurturing aspect of the Hindu
Hindu
goddess Shakti
Shakti
and one of the central deities of the Goddess-oriented Shakta sect. She is the mother goddess in Hinduism,[1][8] and has many attributes and aspects
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Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(/ˈləksmiː/; Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess
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Indra
Indra
Indra
(/ˈɪndrə/, Sanskrit: इन्द्र) is a Vedic deity in Hinduism,[1] a guardian deity in Buddhism,[2] and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.[3] His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical to those of the Indo-European deities such as Zeus, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, and Odin (Wotan).[1][4][5] In the Vedas, Indra
Indra
is the king of Svarga
Svarga
(Heaven) and the Devas. He is the god of the heavens, lightning, thunder, storms, rains and river flows.[6] Indra
Indra
is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda.[7] He is celebrated for his powers, and the one who kills the great symbolic evil (Asura) named Vritra
Vritra
who obstructs human prosperity and happiness
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Surya
Surya
Surya
(/ˈsʊəriə/[2], Sanskrit: सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means the Sun.[3] Synonyms of Surya
Surya
in ancient Indian literature include Aditya, Arka, Bhānu, Savitru, Pushana, Ravi, Mārtanda, Mitra and Vivasvāna.[4][5][6] Surya
Surya
also connotes the solar deity in Hinduism,[7] particularly in the Saura tradition found in states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha
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