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Hikayat Seri Rama
HIKAYAT SERI RAMA is the Malay literary adaptation of the Hindu Ramayana
Ramayana
epic in the form of a hikayat . The main story remains the same as the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version but some aspects of it were slightly modified to a local context such as the spelling and pronunciation of names. Numerous branch stories had also been developed as accretions to or extensions of this epic with the upgrading of minor characters to major ones, or the invention of totally new characters. For example, Malay writers and storytellers have produced variations in which Laksmana ( Lakshman
Lakshman
) plays a larger role, sometimes becoming more important than Rama
Rama
the elder prince much like the Lao Phra Lak Phra Lam
Phra Lak Phra Lam

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Malay Literature
MALAYSIAN LITERATURE is the collection of literary works produced in the Malay peninsula
Malay peninsula
until 1963 and in Malaysia
Malaysia
thereafter. Malaysian literature is typically written in any of the country's four main languages: Malay , English , Chinese and Tamil . It portrays various aspects of Malaysian life and comprises an important part of the culture of Malaysia
Malaysia
. The earliest works of Malaysian literature
Malaysian literature
were transmitted orally in the absence of writing scripts. Oral literature encompasses a variety of genres of Malay folklore , such as myths , legends , folk tales , romances , epics , poetry , proverbs , origin stories and oral histories
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Ramayana
The _RAMAYANA_ (/rɑːˈmɑːjənə/ ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: रामायणम्, _Rāmāyaṇam_, pronounced ), originally titled _KAAVYAM RAMAYANAM KRITSNAM SITAAYAAS CHARITHAM MAHAT_, is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama
Rama
to rescue his wife Sita
Sita
from the demon king Ravana
Ravana
. Along with the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
, it forms the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Itihasa
Itihasa

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Hikayat
HIKAYAT (Jawi : حكاية) - an Arabic word that literally translates to "stories" - is a form of Malay literature , which relate the adventures of national heroes of Malayan kingdoms, or royal chronicles. The stories they contain, though based on history, are heavily romanticized. Poetical format is not required in Malay and Arabic Hikayat while the Acehnese Hikayat requires it. This is a list of hikayat
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts
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Lakshman
LAKSHMANA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: लक्ष्मण, IAST
IAST
: lakṣmaṇa, lit. he who have the signs of fortune) also spelled as LAXMAN or LAKHAN, is the younger brother of Rama
Rama
and his aide in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana
Ramayana
. He is also known by other names- SAUMITRA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: सौमित्र, IAST
IAST
: saumitra, lit. son of Sumitra), RAMANUJA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: रामानुज, IAST
IAST
: rāmānuja, lit. younger brother of Rama) and BHARATANUJA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: भरतानुज, IAST
IAST
: bharatānuja, lit. younger brother of Bharata)
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Rama
RAMA (/ˈrɑːmə/ ; Sanskrit : राम, IAST : _Rāma_), also known as RAMACHANDRA, is a major deity of Hinduism . He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu , one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha . In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being. Rama was born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya , the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala . His siblings included Lakshmana , Bharata , and Shatrughna . He married Sita . Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions and moral dilemmas
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Phra Lak Phra Lam
PHRA LAK PHRA RAM (ພຣະລັກພຣະຣາມ, pʰrāʔ lāk pʰrāʔ ráːm) is the national epic of the Lao people, and is adapted from Valmiki's Hindu epic, the Ramayana
Ramayana
. Similar to some Malay versions of the Hikayat Seri Rama , the epic has lost the association with Hinduism and is instead considered a Jataka Story, a previous lifetime of the Buddha. It is also very popular in Northeastern Thailand, or Isan , a region of Thailand mostly populated by ethnic Lao and formerly part of Lanxang
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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism . It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term _Hindu_ has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus ) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE
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Valmiki
VALMIKI (/vɑːlˈmiːki/ ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: वाल्मीकि, _Vālmīki_) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature . The epic _ Ramayana
Ramayana
_, dated variously from 5th century BCE to first century BCE, is attributed to him, based on the attribution in the text itself. He is revered as _Ādi Kavi_, the first poet, author of _Ramayana_, the first epic poem. _Ramayana_, originally written by Valmiki, consists of 24,000 shlokas and 7 cantos (kaṇḍas) including Uttara Kanda . Ramayana
Ramayana
is composed of about 480, 002 words, being a quarter of the length of the full text of _ Mahabharata _ or about four times the length of _Iliad _
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Southeast Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Tamil People
The TAMIL PEOPLE (Tamil : தமிழர், tamiẓar (singular) ? , or Tamil : தமிழர்கள், tamiẓarkaḷ (plural) ? ), also known as TAMILAR, TAMILANS, or simply TAMILS, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
, or the Northern , Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. Tamil people
Tamil people
with a population of approximately 76 million living around the world are one of the largest and oldest of the existing ethno-linguistic cultural groups of people in the modern world
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Kingdom Of Funan
FUNAN (Chinese : 扶南; pinyin : _Fúnán_) (Khmer : អាណាចក្រន​គរ​ភ្នំ​​ ឬ ហ្វូ​ណន) was the name given by Chinese cartographers , geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states _(Mandala )_ —located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE. The name is found in Chinese historical texts describing the kingdom, and the most extensive descriptions are largely based on the report of two Chinese diplomats, Kang Tai and Zhu Ying, representing the Wu Kingdom of Nanking who sojourned in Funan in the mid-3rd century AD
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Angkor
ANGKOR (Khmer : អង្គរ, "Capital City") was the capital city of the Khmer Empire , which flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries. Angkor
Angkor
was a megacity supporting at least 0.1% of the global population during 1010-1220. The city houses the magnificent Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
, one of Cambodia's popular tourist attractions. The word Angkor
Angkor
is derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nagara (नगर), meaning "city". The Angkorian period began in AD 802, when the Khmer Hindu
Hindu
monarch Jayavarman II declared himself a "universal monarch" and "god-king" , and lasted until the late 14th century, first falling under Ayutthayan suzerainty in 1351
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Srivijaya
SRIVIJAYA (also written SRI VIJAYA, Indonesian /Malay : _SRIWIJAYA_, Javanese : ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Thai : ศรีวิชัย rtgs : _SIWICHAI_, Sanskrit : श्रीविजय, _Śrīvijaya_, known by the Chinese as _SHIH-LI-FO-SHIH_ and _SAN-FO-CH\'I_ Chinese : 三佛齐) :131 was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra , Indonesia , which influenced much of Southeast Asia . Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of Malay archipelago . In Sanskrit , _śrī_ means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and _vijaya_ means "victorious" or "excellence". The earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk , Yijing , wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 CE for six months
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