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Hieronymus De Zentis
GIROLAMO ZENTI (Viterbo c.1609 - Paris
Paris
c.1666) (also: GIROLAMA DE ZENTI, GEROLAMO DE SENTIS, HIERONYMUS DE ZENTIS) was an Italian harpsichord maker and organ builder in the 17th century. He is known as the probable inventor of the bentside spinet and for having traveled unusually extensively to practice his trade at the courts of Europe, including Rome
Rome
, Florence
Florence
, Paris
Paris
, London
London
and Stockholm
Stockholm
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Zenti and the bentside spinet * 3 Surviving instruments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYInformation on Zentis life is fragmentary and spread wide. Zenti was born in Viterbo, near Rome, and was registered as an instrument maker in the papal capital by 1638
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Munich
MUNICH (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ ; German: München, pronounced ( listen ), Austro-Bavarian : Minga , Czech : Mnichov) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria
Bavaria
, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps
Alps
. Munich
Munich
is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg
Hamburg
, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region
Munich Metropolitan Region
is home to 6 million people
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Deutsches Museum
The DEUTSCHES MUSEUM (German Museum) (or DAS DEUTSCHE MUSEUM ) in Munich
Munich
, Germany is the world's largest museum of science and technology , with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology. It receives about 1.5 million visitors per year. The museum was founded on 28 June 1903, at a meeting of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) as an initiative of Oskar von Miller . Its official name is Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (English: German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology). It is the largest museum in Munich. For a period of time the museum was used to host pop and rock concerts including The Who
The Who
, Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
and Elton John
Elton John

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New York City
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York (Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland Province of New York
Province of New York
SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
Duke of York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council
New York City Council
• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Organology
ORGANOLOGY (from Greek : ὄργανον – organon, "instrument" and λόγος – logos, "study") is the science of musical instruments and their classification. It embraces study of instruments' history, instruments used in different cultures, technical aspects of how instruments produce sound, and musical instrument classification . There is a degree of overlap between organology, ethnomusicology (being subsets of musicology ) and the branch of the acoustics devoted to musical instruments. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Prominent organologists * 2.1 Ethno-organologists * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYA number of ancient cultures left documents detailing the musical instruments used and their role in society; these documents sometimes included a classification system
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Leopoldo Franciolini
LEOPOLDO FRANCIOLINI (1844–1920) was an Italian antique dealer who flourished in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is remembered as a fraudster who sold faked and altered historical musical instruments. To this day his work is a barrier to the scholarly study of instruments of the past. CONTENTS* 1 Career * 1.1 The character of the fraudulent instruments * 1.2 Clientele * 1.3 His arrest and prosecution * 1.4 The Franciolini business in later years * 2 Coping with Franciolini frauds in modern times * 2.1 Museums and curators * 2.2 Scholars * 2.3 Dealers and auction houses * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links CAREER This clavicytherium , sold by Franciolini and kept in the Hans Adler Collection of Musical Instruments today, is unlike any authentically attested instrument of this kind. It formed part of the prosecution's evidence in Franciolini's criminal trial; see below. Little is known about Franciolini's life
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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List Of Historical Harpsichord Makers
This page presents a graphical timelines, listing historical makers of the harpsichord and related instruments such as the virginal , spinet and clavicytherium . The makers are grouped according to which regional building tradition they belong. CONTENTS* 1 Graphical timeline overview * 1.1 Notes on overview * 2 Italian makers * 3 Flemish makers * 4 German makers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links * 8 Sources GRAPHICAL TIMELINE OVERVIEWBelow is an overview of arguably the most important harpsichord makers whose names are known today, but the list is by no means exhaustive. Some of those listed were founders and members of influential harpsichord building dynasties. Others are known only through one or two instruments that have serendipitously survived, but are included because these instruments have proven a popular inspiration to modern builders who copy them
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Metropolitan Museum Of Art
www.metmuseum.org The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
Elevation by Simon Fieldhouse BUILT 1874; 144 years ago (1874) ARCHITECT Richard Morris Hunt ; also Calvert Vaux ; Jacob Wrey Mould ARCHITECTURAL STYLE Beaux-Arts NRHP REFERENCE # 86003556 SIGNIFICANT DATES ADDED TO NRHP January 29, 1972 DESIGNATED NHLJune 24, 1986 The METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART of New York , colloquially "THE MET," is the largest art museum in the United States. With 7.06 million visitors in 2016, it was the second most visited art museum in the world , and the fifth most visited museum of any kind
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Cristofori
BARTOLOMEO CRISTOFORI DI FRANCESCO (Italian pronunciation: ; May 4, 1655 – January 27, 1731) was an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano . CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Earlier instruments * 1.2 The first appearance of the piano * 1.3 Later life * 2 Cristofori\'s pianos * 2.1 Design * 2.1.1 Action * 2.1.2 Hammers * 2.1.3 Frame * 2.1.4 Inverted wrest plank * 2.1.5 Soundboard * 2.1.6 Strings * 2.2 Sound * 2.3 Initial reception of the piano * 3 Surviving instruments * 4 Assessments of Cristofori * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links LIFEThe available source materials on Cristofori's life include his birth and death records, two wills, the bills he submitted to his employers, and a single interview carried out by Scipione Maffei . From the latter, both Maffei's notes and the published journal article are preserved. Cristofori was born in Padua in the Republic of Venice
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Florence
FLORENCE (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLOR-əns ; Italian : Firenze ( listen )) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany
. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages ". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
Italy

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Rome
ROME (/roʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,876,051 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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London
LONDON (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Charles II Of England
CHARLES II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England , Scotland and Ireland . He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I , was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War
English Civil War
. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth , and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell

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Christina, Queen Of Sweden
CHRISTINA (18 December 1626 – 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden
Sweden
from 1632 to 1654. She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolph and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg . At the age of six, Christina succeeded her father on the throne upon his death at the Battle of Lützen , but began ruling when she reached the age of 18. Christina is remembered as one of the most educated women of the 1600s. She was fond of books, manuscripts, paintings, and sculptures. With her interest in religion, philosophy, mathematics and alchemy, she attracted many scientists to Stockholm, wanting the city to become the "Athens of the North". She was intelligent, fickle and moody; she rejected what the sexual role of a woman was at the time. She caused a scandal when she decided not to marry and in 1654 when she abdicated her throne and converted to Roman Catholicism
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