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Heteromyidae
Dipodomyinae Heteromyinae Perognathinae HETEROMYIDAE is a family of rodents consisting of kangaroo rats , kangaroo mice , pocket mice and spiny pocket mice . Most HETEROMYIDS live in complex burrows within the deserts and grasslands of western North America
North America
, though species within the genus Heteromys are also found in forests and their range extends down as far as northern South America . They feed mostly on seeds and other plant parts, which they carry in their fur-lined cheek pouches to their burrows. Although they are very different in physical appearance, the closest relatives of the heteromyids are pocket gophers in the family Geomyidae. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Behaviour * 4 Ecology * 5 Taxonomy * 6 References DESCRIPTIONThere are about fifty-nine members of the family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
divided among six genera
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Pliocene
The PLIOCENE ( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/ ; also PLEIOCENE ) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP . It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic Era . The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene. As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Oligocene
The OLIGOCENE ( /ˈɒlᵻɡoʊsiːn/ ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos, "few") and καινός (kainos, "new"), and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs . The Oligocene
Oligocene
is preceded by the Eocene Epoch and is followed by the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch. The Oligocene
Oligocene
is the third and final epoch of the Paleogene Period
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Desert
A DESERT is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation . About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Endemic
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGYThe word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism"
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Hamster
Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia HAMSTERS are rodents belonging to the subfamily CRICETINAE. The subfamily contains about 25 species , classified in six or seven genera . They have become established as popular small house pets , and, partly because they are easy to breed in captivity , hamsters are often used as laboratory animals . In the wild, hamsters are crepuscular and remain underground during the day to avoid being caught by predators. They feed primarily on seeds, fruits , and vegetation, and will occasionally eat burrowing insects . They have elongated cheek pouches extending to their shoulders in which they carry food back to their burrows
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Grassland
GRASSLANDS are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses ( Poaceae ), however sedge ( Cyperaceae ) and rush ( Juncaceae
Juncaceae
) families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
. Grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth
Earth
. For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome (ecosystem ), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Auditory Bulla
The TYMPANIC PART of the temporal bone is a curved plate of bone lying below the squamous part of the frontal bone , in front of the mastoid process , and surrounding the external part of the ear canal . It originates as a separate bone (tympanic bone), which in some mammals stays separate through life. Evolutionarily, a portion of it is derived from the angular bone of the reptilian lower jaw. CONTENTS * 1 Surfaces * 2 Borders * 3 Ear Canal * 4 Other animals * 5 Additional images * 6 References * 7 External links SURFACESIts POSTERO-SUPERIOR surface is concave, and forms the anterior wall, the floor, and part of the posterior wall of the bony ear canal . MEDIALLY, it presents a narrow furrow, the tympanic sulcus, for the attachment of the tympanic membrane
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Rostrum (anatomy)
In anatomy, the term ROSTRUM (from the Latin
Latin
rostrum meaning beak ) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals. CONTENTS * 1 Invertebrates * 2 Vertebrates * 3 See also * 4 References INVERTEBRATES * In crustaceans , the rostrum is the forward extension of the carapace in front of the eyes. It is generally a rigid structure, but can be connected by a hinged joint, as seen in Leptostraca . * Among insects , the rostrum is the name for the piercing mouthparts of the order Hemiptera
Hemiptera
. The long snout of weevils may also be called a rostrum. * Gastropod
Gastropod
molluscs have a rostrum or proboscis . * Cephalopod
Cephalopod
molluscs have hard beak-like mouthparts referred to as the rostrum
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Masseter Muscle
In human anatomy, the MASSETER is one of the muscles of mastication . Found only in mammals, it is particularly powerful in herbivores to facilitate chewing of plant matter. The most obvious muscle of mastication is the masseter muscle, since it is the most superficial and one of the strongest. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Superficial head * 1.2 Deep head * 1.3 Innervation * 2 Function * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Examination * 3.2 Pathology * 4 Additional images * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References STRUCTUREThe masseter is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two heads, superficial and deep. The fibers of the two heads are continuous at their insertion. SUPERFICIAL HEADThe superficial head, the larger, arises by a thick, tendinous aponeurosis from the maxillary process of the zygomatic bone , and from the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch
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Seed
A SEED is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes , including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule , after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns , mosses and liverworts , which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates . The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown , e.g. "seed" potatoes , "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas , which is the model used in nations that speak Romance languages . The reference to South America
South America
instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean ; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera