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Hertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
(symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure
(also spelled gage pressure)[a] is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as ​1⁄760 of this
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Aperiodic Frequency
Aperiodic frequency is the rate of incidence or occurrence of non-cyclic phenomena, including random processes such as radioactive decay. It is expressed in units of measurement of reciprocal seconds or, in the case of radioactivity, becquerels. It is defined as a ratio, f = N/T, involving the number of times an event happened (N) during a given time duration (T); it is a physical quantity of type temporal rate. See also[edit] Frequency
Frequency
(statistics)This science article is a stub
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Stochastic
See also stochastic process.This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can. (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.[1] The word first appeared in English to describe a mathematical object called a stochastic process, but now in mathematics the terms stochastic process and random process are considered interchangeable.[2][3][4][5][6] The word, with its current definition meaning random, came from German, but it originally came from Greek στόχος (stokhos), meaning 'aim, guess'.[1] The term stochastic is used in many different fields, particularly where stochastic or random processes are used to represent systems or phenomena that seem to change in a random way
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International Committee For Weights And Measures
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.Contents1 Origin of the word 2 Meaning in particular fields 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 SourcesOrigin of the word[edit] The term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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Radioactive Decay
Radioactive
Radioactive
decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. Radioactive
Radioactive
decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay,[1][2][3] regardless of how long the atom has existed
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Musical Tone
Traditionally in Western music, a musical tone is a steady periodic sound. A musical tone is characterized by its duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre (or quality).[1] The notes used in music can be more complex than musical tones, as they may include aperiodic aspects, such as attack transients, vibrato, and envelope modulation. A simple tone, or pure tone, has a sinusoidal waveform. A complex tone is a combination of two or more pure tones that have a periodic pattern of repetition, unless specified otherwise. The Fourier theorem states that any periodic waveform can be approximated as closely as desired as the sum of a series of sine waves with frequencies in a harmonic series and at specific phase relationships to each other. The common denominator frequency, which is also often the lowest of these frequencies is the fundamental frequency, and is also the inverse of the period of the waveform
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Sine Wave
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave is a continuous wave. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields
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Atom Vibrations
The atoms and ions of a crystalline lattice, which are bonded with each other with considerable interatomic forces, are not motionless. Due to the consistent vibration induced through thermal energy, they are permanently deviating from their equilibrium position. Elastic waves of different lengths, frequencies, and amplitudes run through crystalline solids at all times. The frequencies are typically of the order of 1013 Hz, and the amplitudes are typically of the order of 10−11 m. The process of the atomic vibrations is important for materials of different classes: for metallic, covalent, ionic crystals, semiconductors, intermetallic compounds, interstitial phases
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Adult
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity. In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor", a legal adult is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, and responsible. The typical age of attaining adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country. Human
Human
adulthood encompasses psychological adult development. Definitions of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory; a person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavior but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely, one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age
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Multiplicative Inverse
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a. For the multiplicative inverse of a real number, divide 1 by the number
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Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next. It consists of two periods: one during which the heart muscle relaxes and refills with blood, called diastole (die-ASS-toe-lee), followed by a period of robust contraction and pumping of blood, dubbed systole (SIS-toe-lee). After emptying, the heart immediately relaxes and expands to receive another influx of blood returning from the lungs and other systems of the body—before again contracting to pump blood to the lungs and those systems. A normally performing heart must be fully expanded before it can efficiently pump again
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Femto
Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or 0.000000000000001. Adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures,[1] it was added in 1964 to the SI.[2] It is derived from the Danish word femten, meaning "fifteen". Examples of use:The HIV-1 virus weighs about 1 x 10−15 g or 1 fg. Orders of magnitude (mass) a proton has a diameter of about 1.6 to 1.7 femtometres. More examples available.The femtometre shares the unit symbol (fm) with the older non-SI unit fermi, to which it is equivalent
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Letter Case
Letter case
Letter case
(or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. The two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. Letter case
Letter case
is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text
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Title Case
Letter case
Letter case
(or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. The two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. Letter case
Letter case
is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text
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