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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Pressure
PRESSURE (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit
SI unit
of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre ; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi ) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure ; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as  1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water , millimetre of mercury , and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer
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Aperiodic Frequency
APERIODIC FREQUENCY is the rate of incidence or occurrence of non-cyclic phenomena, including random processes such as radioactive decay . It is expressed in units of measurement of reciprocal seconds or, in the case of radioactivity, becquerels . It is defined as a ratio , f = N/T, involving the number of times an event happened (N) during a given time duration (T); it is a physical quantity of type temporal rate . SEE ALSO * Frequency
Frequency
(statistics) This science article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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International Committee For Weights And Measures
The INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (abbreviated CIPM from the French COMITé INTERNATIONAL DES POIDS ET MESURES) consists of eighteen persons from Member States of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) appointed by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) whose principal task is to ensure worldwide uniformity in units of measurement by direct action or by submitting proposals to the CGPM. CONTENTS * 1 Mission * 2 Consultative committees * 3 Major reports * 3.1 The Blevin Report * 3.2 The Kaarls Report * 3.3 SI Brochure * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links MISSIONThe secretariat is based at Sèvres , Hauts-de-Seine
Hauts-de-Seine
, France
France

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Adult
Biologically , an ADULT is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity . In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor ", a LEGAL ADULT is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient , and responsible. Human
Human
adulthood encompasses psychological adult development . Definitions of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory; a person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavior but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely, one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age
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Musical Tone
Traditionally in Western music , a MUSICAL TONE is a steady periodic sound. A musical tone is characterized by its duration , pitch , intensity (or loudness ), and timbre (or quality). The notes used in music can be more complex than musical tones, as they may include aperiodic aspects, such as attack transients , vibrato , and envelope modulation . A simple tone, or pure tone , has a sinusoidal waveform . A COMPLEX TONE is a combination of two or more pure tones that have a periodic pattern of repetition. CONTENTS * 1 Pure tone * 2 Fourier theorem * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading PURE TONE This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (July 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )A PURE TONE is a tone with a sinusoidal waveform , e.g. a sine or cosine wave
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Stochastic
The word STOCHASTIC is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined. The word first appeared in English to describe a mathematical object called a stochastic process , but now in mathematics the terms stochastic process and random process are considered interchangeable. The word, with its current definition meaning random, came from German, but it originally came from Greek στόχος (stokhos), meaning 'aim, guess'. The term stochastic is used in many different fields, particularly where stochastic or random processes are used to represent systems or phenomena that seem to change in a random way. Examples of such fields include the physical sciences such as biology , chemistry , ecology , neuroscience , and physics as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing , signal processing , information theory , computer science , cryptography and telecommunications
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Radioactive Decay
RADIOACTIVE DECAY (also known as NUCLEAR DECAY or RADIOACTIVITY) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame ) by emitting radiation , such as an alpha particle , beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture , gamma ray , or electron in the case of internal conversion . A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered RADIOACTIVE. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission , or more rarely, proton emission . Radioactive
Radioactive
decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory , it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed. However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives
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Cardiac Cycle
The CARDIAC CYCLE refers to the sequence of mechanical and electrical events that repeats with every heartbeat. It includes the phase of relaxation diastole and the phase of contraction systole . Because the human heart is a four chambered organ, there are atrial systole, atrial diastole, ventricular systole and ventricular diastole. The frequency of the cardiac cycle is described by the heart rate , which is typically expressed as beats per minute . Each cycle of the heart, from the point of view of the ventricles and the status of their valves, involves a minimum of four major stages: Inflow phase, Isovolumetric contraction , outflow phase and Isovolumetric relaxation . The first and the fourth stages, together constitute the "ventricular diastole" stage, involve the movement of blood from the atria into the ventricles . Stages 2 and 3 involve the "ventricular systole" i.e
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Title Case
LETTER CASE (or just CASE) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order . Letter case
Letter case
is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline
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Letter Case
LETTER CASE (or just CASE) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order . Letter case
Letter case
is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline
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Symbol
A SYMBOL is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers . Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography , an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map
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Sine Wave
A SINE WAVE or SINUSOID is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation . A sine wave is a continuous wave . It is named after the function sine , of which it is the graph . It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics , as well as physics , engineering , signal processing and many other fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (t) is: y ( t ) = A sin ( 2 f t + ) = A sin ( t + ) {displaystyle y(t)=Asin(2pi ft+varphi )=Asin(omega t+varphi )} where: * A = the amplitude , the peak deviation of the function from zero. * f = the ordinary frequency , the number of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time. * ω = 2πf, the angular frequency , the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second* {displaystyle varphi } = the phase , specifies (in radians) where in its cycle the oscillation is at t = 0
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Heart Rate
HEART RATE is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide . It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include physical exercise , sleep , anxiety , stress , illness , and ingestion of drugs . Many texts cite the normal resting adult human heart rate as ranging from 60–100 bpm. Tachycardia
Tachycardia
is a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia
Bradycardia
is a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. Several studies, as well as expert consensus indicates that the normal resting adult heart rate is probably closer to a range between 50 and 90 bpm. During sleep a slow heartbeat with rates around 40–50 bpm is common and is considered normal
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Femto
FEMTO- (symbol F) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or 0.000000000000001. Adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures , it was added in 1964 to the SI. It is derived from the Danish word femten, meaning "fifteen". Examples of use: * The HIV-1 virus weighs about 1 x 10−15 g or 1 fg. Orders of magnitude (mass) * a proton has a diameter of about 1.6 to 1.7 femtometres. * More examples available .The femtometre shares the unit symbol (fm) with the older non-SI unit fermi , to which it is equivalent. The fermi, named in honour of Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
, is often encountered in nuclear physics
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Oscillation
OSCILLATION is the repetitive variation, typically in time , of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium ) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current power. Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but also in dynamic systems in virtually every area of science: for example the beating human heart , business cycles in economics , predator–prey population cycles in ecology , geothermal geysers in geology , vibrating strings in musical instruments , periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, and the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy
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