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Heron Tower
Coordinates : 51°30′58″N 0°4′51″W / 51.51611°N 0.08083°W / 51.51611; -0.08083 HERON TOWER GENERAL INFORMATION STATUS Complete TYPE Commercial LOCATION London
London
, EC2 United Kingdom CONSTRUCTION STARTED 2007 COMPLETED 2011 HEIGHT ANTENNA SPIRE 230 metres (755 ft) ROOF 202 metres (663 ft) DIMENSIONS OTHER DIMENSIONS 2,400-square-metre (26,000 sq ft) site TECHNICAL DETAILS FLOOR COUNT 46 FLOOR AREA 461,478 sq ft (43,000 m2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT Kohn Pedersen Fox STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Arup MAIN CONTRACTOR Skanska WEBSITE http://www.salesforce-tower.com The lobby features a 70,000-litre aquarium containing hundreds of fish. The HERON TOWER (officially 110 BISHOPSGATE) is a commercial skyscraper in London. It stands 230 metres (755 ft) tall including its 28-metre (92 ft) mast (202 metres (663 ft) excluding the mast) making it the tallest building in the City of London
London
financial district and the third tallest in Greater London
London
and the United Kingdom, after the Shard in Southwark
Southwark
and One Canada Square at Canary Wharf. The Heron Tower is located on Bishopsgate and is bordered by Camomile Street , Outwich Street and Houndsditch
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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EC Postcode Area
A POSTAL CODE (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a POSTCODE, POST CODE, EIRCODE, PIN CODE or ZIP CODE) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail . In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system
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Kohn Pedersen Fox
KOHN PEDERSEN FOX ASSOCIATES (KPF) is an American architecture firm which provides architecture, interior, programming and master planning services for clients in both the public and private sectors. KPF is one of the largest architecture firms in the world and is currently one of the largest in New York City , where it is located. CONTENTS * 1 Recent work * 2 Approach * 2.1 Beginnings in the United States (1976–1980s) * 2.2 Expansion to Europe (1980s–1990s) * 2.3 Work in Asia and internationally (1990s–2009) * 3 Selected projects * 4 Awards and honors * 4.1 AIA National Chapter Awards * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links RECENT WORKToday, KPF's projects include civic and cultural spaces, commercial office buildings, transportation facilities, residential and hospitality developments, educational and institutional facilities, and diverse mixed-use commercial developments. KPF’s projects over the last 10 years include Roppongi Hills in Tokyo (2003), Unilever House in London (2007), the Mandarin Oriental, Las Vegas (2009), the Stephen M
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Arup Group Limited
ARUP (officially ARUP GROUP LIMITED) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London which provides engineering, design, planning , project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment . The firm has over 14,000 staff based in 92 offices across 42 countries, and is present in Africa , the Americas, Australasia , East Asia, Europe and the Middle East . Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries. Arup is owned by trusts , the beneficiaries of which are Arup's past and present employees, who receive a share of the firm's operating profit each year. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable projects * 2.1 Africa * 2.2 The Americas * 2.3 Asia * 2.4 Australia * 2.5 Europe * 2.6 Sports * 3 Awards * 4 Fellows * 5 Notable alumni and current staff * 6 Related companies * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe firm was founded in London in 1946, as the Ove N. Arup Consulting Engineers by Ove Arup . He set out to build a firm where professionals of diverse disciplines could work together to produce projects of greater quality than was achievable by them working in isolation. In 1963, together with the architect Philip Dowson , Arup Associates was formed
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Skanska
SKANSKA AB (Swedish pronunciation: ) is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden. Skanska
Skanska
is the fifth largest construction company in the world according to the Construction
Construction
Global magazine. Notable Skanska
Skanska
projects include the World Trade Center Transportation Hub project, 30 St Mary Axe , MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
, Mater Dei Hospital , among others. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operations * 2.1 Environment * 2.2 Market * 2.3 Competitors * 2.3.1 Construction
Construction
* 2.3.2 Residential development * 2.3.3 Commercial property development * 3 Major projects * 3.1 Europe
Europe
* 3.2 United States
United States
* 4 Controversies * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYAKTIEBOLAGET SKåNSKA CEMENTGJUTERIET (Scanian Cement Casting Ltd) was established in Malmö , Sweden
Sweden
, in 1887 by Rudolf Fredrik Berg and started by manufacturing concrete products. It quickly diversified into a construction company and within 10 years the company received its first international order. The company played an important role in building Sweden’s infrastructure including its roads, power plants, offices and housing
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Skyscraper
A SKYSCRAPER is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors . When the term was originally used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors but now describes one of at least 40–50 floors. Mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses, a skyscraper can also be called a high-rise , but the term "skyscraper" is often used for buildings higher than 100 m (328 ft). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls . These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete . Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure , and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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List Of Tallest Buildings And Structures In London
STRUCTURE is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system , or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms , minerals and chemicals . Abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form . Types of structure include a hierarchy (a cascade of one-to-many relationships), a network featuring many-to-many links , or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space. CONTENTS * 1 Load-bearing * 2 Biological * 3 Chemical * 4 Mathematical * 5 Musical * 6 Social * 7 Data * 8 Software * 9 Logical * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links LOAD-BEARING A traditional Sami food storage structure Gothic quadripartite cross-ribbed vaults of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris Buildings, aircraft, skeletons, anthills, beaver dams and salt domes are all examples of load -bearing structures. The results of construction are divided into buildings and non-building structures , and make up the infrastructure of a human society. Built structures are broadly divided by their varying design approaches and standards, into categories including building structures, architectural structures , civil engineering structures and mechanical structures
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The Shard
THE SHARD, also referred to as the SHARD OF GLASS, SHARD LONDON BRIDGE and formerly LONDON BRIDGE TOWER, is a 95-storey skyscraper in Southwark , London , that forms part of the London Bridge Quarter development. Standing 309.7 metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is the tallest building in the United Kingdom , the fourth-tallest building in Europe and the 111th-tallest building in the world . It is also the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom , after the concrete tower at the Emley Moor transmitting station . The Shard's construction began in March 2009; it was topped out on 30 March 2012 and inaugurated on 6 July 2012. Practical completion was achieved in November 2012. The tower's privately operated observation deck, The View from The Shard , was opened to the public on 1 February 2013. The glass-clad pyramidal tower has 72 habitable floors, with a viewing gallery and open-air observation deck on the 72nd floor, at a height of 244.3 metres (802 ft). It was designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano and replaced Southwark Towers , a 24-storey office block built on the site in 1975. The Shard was developed by Sellar Property Group on behalf of LBQ Ltd and is jointly owned by Sellar Property (5%) and the State of Qatar (95%)
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Southwark
SOUTHWARK (/ˈsʌðərk/ _SUDH-ərk_ ) is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark . Situated 1.5 miles (2.4 km) east of Charing Cross , it forms one of the oldest parts of London and fronts the River Thames to the north. It historically formed an ancient borough in the county of Surrey , made up of a number of parishes, which increasingly came under the influence and jurisdiction of the City of London . As an inner district of London, Southwark experienced rapid depopulation during the late-19th and early-20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and is the county town of Greater London which is the location of the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority . Southwark had a population of 30,119 in 2011. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Urbanisation * 1.4 Local governance * 1.5 Relationship with the City of London * 2 Governance * 3 Geography * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYTOPONYMYThe name _Suthriganaweorc_ or _Suthringa geweorche_ is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the _ Burghal Hidage _ and means "fort of the men of Surrey " or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey"
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One Canada Square
ONE CANADA SQUARE, sometimes called CANARY WHARF TOWER or simply CANARY WHARF , is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf , London . It was the tallest building in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2010, standing at 770 feet (235 m) above ground level and containing 50 storeys . In late 2010, it was surpassed by the Shard (completed in July 2012). One Canada Square was designed by architect Mr Cesar Pelli , who based the design and shape on earlier precedents buildings that include Brookfield Place and Elizabeth Tower . The building is clad with durable stainless steel. One of the predominant features of the building is the pyramid roof, which contains a flashing aircraft warning light, a rare feature for buildings in the United Kingdom. The distinctive pyramid pinnacle is 800 feet (240 m) above sea level . One Canada Square is primarily used for offices, though there are some retail units on the lower ground floor. It is a prestigious location for offices and as of May 2017 was 100% let. The building is recognised as a London landmark, and it has gained much attention through film, television, and other media as one of the tallest buildings in the United Kingdom
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Bishopsgate
BISHOPSGATE is one of the 25 wards of the City of London
City of London
and also the name of a major road (part of the A10 ) between Gracechurch Street
Gracechurch Street
and Norton Folgate
Norton Folgate
in the northeast corner of London
London
's main financial district. Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
is named after one of the original eight gates in the London
London
Wall . The site of this former gate is marked by a stone bishop 's mitre , fixed high upon a building located at Bishopsgate's junction with Wormwood Street , by the gardens there and facing the Heron Tower
Heron Tower
. Although tens of thousands of people commute to and work in the ward, it has a resident population of only 222 (2011 ). CONTENTS * 1 Ward geography * 2 History * 3 Skyscrapers * 4 Politics * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links WARD GEOGRAPHYThe ward (which is large by City standards) is bounded by Worship Street to the north, where the edge of the City meets the boroughs of Islington and Hackney . It neighbours Portsoken ward and the borough of Tower Hamlets in the east. The western boundary is formed by Old Broad Street and Broad Street ward itself
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Camomile Street
CAMOMILE STREET is a short street in the City of London , the financial and historic centre of London . DESCRIPTIONIt is a westward continuation of Bevis Marks , linking that street to Houndsditch (via Outwich Street) and a junction with Bishopsgate and Wormwood Street . The houses on the north side are on the site of the old Wall of London , and in excavations made for the foundations of warehouses in the street, a bastion and other portions of the wall have been found, partly of Roman construction. A tablet on the house at the north-east corner of the street marks the former site of Bishopsgate. HISTORYThere is no indication as to the origin of the name, and the street seems to have been unnamed in Stow 's time. It suggests that the land immediately within the wall was waste and unbuilt on, and was covered with chamomile , which springs up so readily on all unoccupied land to this day
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Houndsditch
HOUNDSDITCH is a one-way street in London linking Outwich Street in the north-west to St. Botolph Street in the south-east. It runs through parts of the Portsoken and Bishopsgate Without wards of the City of London , the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It marks the route of an old ditch that ran outside a part of the London Wall , renowned for being used as a site for disposing of waste and, particularly, deceased dogs . The road forms part of the A1211 route from Barbican to Whitechapel . Traffic continues onto Houndsditch from Outwich Street, a short section of road behind the Heron Tower , and then enters St. Botolph Street at the south-eastern end of Houndsditch. From there, traffic may turn left onto Whitechapel High Street or right onto Aldgate High Street. HISTORY 1872 print of Houndsditch A ditch was dug outside Londinium 's defensive wall by the Romans but was subsequently filled in and obliterated. The Danes under Cnut the Great constructed a town ditch to control access to the city. The ditch was redug in 1211 as a part of the defences, and was about 75 feet (23 m) in width. The city authorities found it a continual problem to scour and clean as many adjacent houses found it a convenient place to dispose of filth and refuse. In 1595, levelling was first considered, although the street running alongside the ditch had first been paved in 1503
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