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Hermarchus
HERMARCHUS or HERMARCH (Greek : Ἕρμαρχoς, Hermarkhos, "reign of Hermes"; c. 325-c. 250 BC ), sometimes incorrectly written HERMACHUS (Greek : Ἕρμαχoς, Hermakhos), was an Epicurean philosopher. He was the disciple and successor of Epicurus
Epicurus
as head of the school. None of his writings survive. He wrote works directed against Plato
Plato
, Aristotle
Aristotle
, and Empedocles
Empedocles
. A fragment from his Against Empedocles, preserved by Porphyry , discusses the need for law in society. His views on the nature of the gods are quoted by Philodemus
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Hermarchus (genus)
Hermarchus annulatus Hermarchus apollonius Hermarchus biroi Hermarchus differens Hermarchus godeffroyi Hermarchus inermis Hermarchus leytensis Hermarchus lyratus Hermarchus mülleri Hermarchus novaebritanniae Hermarchus oreitrephes Hermarchus polynesicus Hermarchus pythonius Hermarchus virga HERMARCHUS is a genus of very large stick insects within the order Phasmatodea
Phasmatodea
and the tribe of Pharnaciini . Females are often 200 to 240 mm long (body length), depending on species. There are 14 known species, which occur in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Fiji
Fiji
, Australia
Australia
, Philippines
Philippines
and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
. The males are winged, while wings are lacking in the larger females. They feed upon the leaves of plants such as eucalyptus, guava, bramble and acacia. REFERENCES * J
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Epicurean
EPICUREANISM is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus
Epicurus
was an atomic materialist , following in the steps of Democritus
Democritus
. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention . Following Aristippus
Aristippus
—about whom very little is known— Epicurus
Epicurus
believed that what he called "pleasure" was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia ) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia ). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form
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Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, _Epíkouros_, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism . Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by _ataraxia _—peace and freedom from fear—and _aponia _—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and therefore should not be feared; the gods neither reward nor punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space
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Plato
PLATO (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/ ; Greek : Πλάτων _Plátōn_, pronounced in Classical Attic ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world . He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition . Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries , Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Others believe that the oldest extant manuscript dates to around AD 895, 1100 years after Plato's death. This makes it difficult to know exactly what Plato wrote. Along with his teacher, Socrates , and his most famous student, Aristotle , Plato laid the very foundations of Western philosophy and science
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Aristotle
ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης, pronounced , _Aristotélēs_; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice , on the northern periphery of Classical Greece . His father, Nicomachus , died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects – including physics , biology , zoology , metaphysics , logic , ethics, aesthetics , poetry , theater, music, rhetoric , linguistics , politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy
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Empedocles
EMPEDOCLES (/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/ ; Greek : Ἐμπεδοκλῆς , Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Acragas ( Agrigentum ), a Greek city in Sicily
Sicily
. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements . He also proposed forces he called Love
Love
and Strife which would mix as well as separate the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans , Empedocles
Empedocles
was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation . He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher
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Porphyry (philosopher)
PORPHYRY OF TYRE (/ˈpɔːrfəri/ ; Greek : Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; Arabic
Arabic
: فرفوريوس‎‎, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre , in the Roman Empire. He edited and published the Enneads
Enneads
, the only collection of the work of his teacher Plotinus
Plotinus
. His commentary on Euclid
Euclid
's Elements was used as a source by Pappus of Alexandria
Pappus of Alexandria
. He also wrote many works himself on a wide variety of topics. His Isagoge
Isagoge
, or Introduction, is an introduction to logic and philosophy, and in the Latin
Latin
and Arabic
Arabic
translations it was the standard textbook on logic throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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Gods
A DEITY (/ˈdiː.ᵻti/ ( listen ) or /ˈdeɪ.ᵻti/ ( listen )) is a natural or supernatural being considered divine or sacred . The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion)", or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". A male deity is a GOD , while a female deity is a GODDESS
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Philodemus
PHILODEMUS OF GADARA (Greek : Φιλόδημος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, Philodēmos, "love of the people"; c. 110 – prob. c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher and poet . He studied under Zeno of Sidon in Athens
Athens
, before moving to Rome
Rome
, and then to Herculaneum
Herculaneum
. He was once known chiefly for his poetry preserved in the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
, but since the 18th century, many writings of his have been discovered among the charred papyrus rolls at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
. The task of excavating and deciphering these rolls is difficult, and work continues to this day. The works of Philodemus so far discovered include writings on ethics , theology , rhetoric , music , poetry , and the history of various philosophical schools
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Mytilene
MYTILENE (Greek : Μυτιλήνη Mytilini ) is an city founded in the 11th century BC. Mytilene
Mytilene
is the capital and port of the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
and also the capital of the North Aegean
North Aegean
Region. The seat of governor of the North Aegean
North Aegean
Region is Mytilene. Mytilene
Mytilene
is also one of 13 municipalities (counties) on the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
. Mytilene
Mytilene
is built on the southeast edge of the island. It is also the seat of a metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox church
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα, _ Elláda _ ), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, _Ellinikí Dimokratía_ ), historically also known as HELLAS ( Ancient Greek : Ἑλλάς, _Hellás_ , modern pronunciation _Ellás_), is a country in southeastern Europe , with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki . Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa
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Rhetoric
RHETORIC is the art of discourse , wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle
Aristotle
, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion ." Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos , pathos , and ethos . The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention , arrangement , style , memory , and delivery
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