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Hermann Schaper
SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
HERMANN SCHAPER (born 12 August 1911 at Strassburg im Elsass ; deceased), was an SS functionary of Nazi Germany (card number 3484) and the German member of the NSDAP
NSDAP
(No. 105606) during the Second World War
Second World War
. He was a Holocaust perpetrator responsible for atrocities committed by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
in German occupied Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was convicted after the war of numerous war crimes . SS CAREER See also: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland
Poland
Schaper joined the SS and was promoted to the rank of SS-Untersturmführer on 20 April 1935. He achieved the rank of SS-Obersturmführer on 20 April 1937
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Operation Barbarossa
FRONTLINE STRENGTH (INITIAL) * 3.8 million personnel * 3,350 tanks * 2,770 aircraft * 7,200 artillery pieces FRONTLINE STRENGTH (INITIAL) * 2.6–2.9 million personnel * 11,000 tanks * 7,133–9,100 military aircraft CASUALTIES AND LOSSESTOTAL MILITARY CASUALTIES: 1,000,000+ Breakdown * CASUALTIES OF 1941: -------------------------According to German Army medical reports (including Army Norway
Norway
): * 186,452 killed * 40,157 missing * 655,179 wounded in action ------------------------- * 2,827 aircraft destroyed * 2,839 tanks dest
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Himmler
HEINRICH LUITPOLD HIMMLER (German: ( listen ); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) of Germany
Germany
. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
briefly appointed him a military commander and later Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army and General Plenipotentiary for the administration of the entire Third Reich (Generalbevollmächtigter für die Verwaltung). Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and one of the people most directly responsible for the Holocaust . As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in college, and joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1923 and the SS in 1925
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Białystok
BIAłYSTOK ( ( listen ); English: /bjɑːˈwɪstɒk/ byah-WIH-stok ; Belarusian : Беласток, translit. Belostok, Lithuanian : Balstogė, Russian : Белосток, translit. Belostok, Yiddish : ביאַליסטאָק‎, translit. Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland
Poland
and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship . Located in the Białystok
Białystok
Uplands of the Podlaskie
Podlaskie
Plain
Plain
on the banks of the Biała River , Białystok
Białystok
ranks second in terms of population density, eleventh in population, and thirteenth in area, of the cities of Poland. It has historically attracted migrants from elsewhere in Poland
Poland
and beyond, particularly from Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe

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Strasbourg
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once
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Płock
PłOCK (pronounced ( listen )) is a city on the Vistula
Vistula
river in central Poland. It is located in the Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
(since 1999), having previously been the capital of the Płock
Płock
Voivodeship (1975–1998). According to the data provided by GUS on 30 June 2009 there were 126,675 inhabitants in the city. Its full ceremonial name, according to the preamble to the City Statute, is Stołeczne Książęce Miasto Płock
Płock
(the Princely or Ducal Capital City of Płock). It is used in ceremonial documents as well as for preserving an old tradition. Płock
Płock
is now a capital of the powiat (county) in the west of the Mazovian Voivodeship. From 1079 - 1138 it was the first historical capital of Poland
Poland
. Its cathedral has the sarcophagi of the Polish monarchy
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Occupation Of Poland
The OCCUPATION OF POLAND by Germany
Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the Second World War
Second World War
(1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland
Poland
in September 1939, and formally concluded with the defeat of Germany
Germany
by the Allies in May 1945. Throughout the entire course of foreign occupation, the territory of Poland
Poland
was divided between Germany
Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) with the intention of eradicating Polish culture and subjugating its people by occupying German and Soviet powers. In summer-autumn of 1941 the lands annexed by the Soviets were overrun by Germany
Germany
in the course of the initially successful German attack on the USSR
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Captain (land)
The army rank of CAPTAIN (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces . Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery (or United States Army cavalry troop or Commonwealth squadron ). In the Chinese People\'s Liberation Army , a captain may also command a company , or be the second-in-command of a battalion . In NATO
NATO
countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 (lieutenant or first lieutenant ) and one below an OF-3 (major or commandant ). The rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field
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Gestapo
The GESTAPO (German pronunciation: ( listen )), abbreviation of GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany
Germany
and German-occupied Europe . The force was created by Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia
Prussia
into one organization. Beginning on 20 April 1934 it passed to the administration of Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) national leader Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
, who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police (Chef der Deutschen Polizei) by Hitler, the Gestapo
Gestapo
at this time becoming a national rather than a Prussian state agency as a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) ("Security Police")
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Polish Campaign
Decisive German and Soviet victory * Beginning of World War II
World War II
Territorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Slovakia
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Polish Jews
The HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN POLAND dates back over 1000 years. For centuries, Poland
Poland
was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland
Poland
was the centre of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy . This ended with the Partitions of Poland
Poland
which began in 1772, in particular, with the discrimination and persecution of Jews
Jews
in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. During World War II
World War II
there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish
Jewish
community by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, during the 1939–1945 German occupation of Poland
Poland
and the ensuing Holocaust
Holocaust

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Piątnica
PIąTNICA (until 1999 Piątnica
Piątnica
Poduchowna) is a village in Łomża County , Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
, in north-eastern Poland. It is the seat of gmina (administrative district) called Gmina
Gmina
Piątnica
Piątnica
. It lies approximately 4 kilometres (2 mi) north of Łomża
Łomża
and 73 km (45 mi) west of the regional capital Białystok
Białystok
. In 2006 the village had a population of 1,800. HISTORY Piątnica
Piątnica
was founded by Janusz from Zaborowo who built the first church there (1407). The village has also a Neo-Gothic church (1931), which was destroyed during the Second World War and reconstructed after that. There are also Russian forts from the 19th century and from the First World War
First World War
in its vicinity
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Ludwigsburg
LUDWIGSBURG (German pronunciation: ) is a city in Baden-Württemberg , Germany, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Stuttgart
Stuttgart
city centre, near the river Neckar
Neckar
. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg district with about 88,000 inhabitants. It is situated within the Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Region , and the district is part of the administrative region (Regierungsbezirk) of Stuttgart
Stuttgart

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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") (pre-) 1967 border (Green Line ) Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition ) 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew *
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Rutki, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
RUTKI (German : Klein Ruttken) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina
Gmina
Pasym
Pasym
, within Szczytno County , Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship , in northern Poland. It lies approximately 8 kilometres (5 mi) south-west of Pasym
Pasym
, 19 km (12 mi) west of Szczytno
Szczytno
, and 25 km (16 mi) south-east of the regional capital Olsztyn
Olsztyn
. Before 1945 the area was part of Germany ( East Prussia
East Prussia
). REFERENCES * ^ "Former Territory of Germany" (in German). 2017-11-13. * ^ "Central Statistical Office (GUS) – TERYT (National Register of Territorial Land Apportionment Journal)" (in Polish). 2008-06-01
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Wąsosz, Podlaskie Voivodeship
WąSOSZ is a village in Grajewo County
Grajewo County
, Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
, in north-eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina (administrative district) called Gmina
Gmina
Wąsosz . It lies approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) south-west of Grajewo and 73 km (45 mi) north-west of the regional capital Białystok
Białystok
. The village has a population of 1,600. Wąsosz received city rights from Prince Władysław on 13 May 1436, and lost them in 1870 under the Russian rule following the Partitions . The already well-developed town was destroyed in the Swedish Deluge of 1655-1656 and then rebuilt. The Town Hall was erected in 1789. Almost all of the streets were paved at around the same time
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