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Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
(born 12 August 1911 – date of death unknown), was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era. He was a Holocaust perpetrator responsible for atrocities committed by the Einsatzgruppen in German-occupied Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was convicted after the war of numerous war crimes.[1] SS career[edit] See also: The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland Schaper joined the SS and was promoted to the rank of SS-Untersturmführer
SS-Untersturmführer
on 20 April 1935. He achieved the rank of SS-Obersturmführer
SS-Obersturmführer
on 20 April 1937
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Rutki, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Rutki [ˈrutki] (German: Klein Ruttken)[1] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina
Gmina
Pasym, within Szczytno
Szczytno
County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.[2] It lies approximately 8 kilometres (5 mi) south-west of Pasym, 19 km (12 mi) west of Szczytno, and 25 km (16 mi) south-east of the regional capital Olsztyn. Before 1945 the area was part of Germany (East Prussia). References[edit]^ "Former Territory of Germany" (in German)
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Białystok
Białystok
Białystok
([bʲaˈwɨstɔk] ( listen); English: /bjɑːˈwɪstɒk/ byah-WIH-stok; Belarusian: Беласток, translit. Belostok, Lithuanian: Balstogė, Russian: Белосток, translit. Belostok, Yiddish: ביאַליסטאָק‎, translit. Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland
Poland
and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Located in the Białystok
Białystok
Uplands of the Podlaskie
Podlaskie
Plain
Plain
on the banks of the Biała River, Białystok
Białystok
ranks second in terms of population density, eleventh in population, and thirteenth in area, of the cities of Poland. It has historically attracted migrants from elsewhere in Poland
Poland
and beyond, particularly from Central and Eastern Europe
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Polish Campaign
German and Soviet victoryBeginning of World War IITerritorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia
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Polish Jews
The history of the Jews
Jews
in Poland
Poland
dates back over 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland
Poland
was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland
Poland
was the centre of Jewish
Jewish
culture, thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the Partitions of Poland
Poland
which began in 1772, in particular, with the discrimination and persecution of Jews in the Russian Empire. During World War II
World War II
there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish
Jewish
community by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, during the 1939–1945 German occupation of Poland
Poland
and the ensuing Holocaust
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Communist
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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NKVD
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD
NKVD
(НКВД  listen (help·info)), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917,[1] the NKVD
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East Prussia
East Prussia
Prussia
(German: Ostpreußen, pronounced [ˈɔstˌpʁɔʏsən] ( listen); Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Lithuanian: Rytų Prūsija; Latin: Borussia orientalis; Russian: Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire
German Empire
from 1871); following World War I
World War I
it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
Königsberg
(present-day Kaliningrad). East Prussia
Prussia
was the main part of the region of Prussia
Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast.[1] East Prussia
Prussia
enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians
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Wąsosz, Podlaskie Voivodeship
Wąsosz [ˈvɔ̃sɔʂ] is a village in Grajewo County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.[1] It is the seat of the gmina (administrative district) called Gmina Wąsosz. It lies approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) south-west of Grajewo and 73 km (45 mi) north-west of the regional capital Białystok. The village has a population of 1,600. Wąsosz received city rights from Prince Władysław on 13 May 1436, and lost them in 1870 under the Russian rule following the Partitions. The already well-developed town was destroyed in the Swedish Deluge of 1655-1656 and then rebuilt. The Town Hall was erected in 1789. Almost all of the streets were paved at around the same time. The Carmelite monastery was established in Wąsosz as far back as 1605, but was closed in 1864 by the authorities in reprisal for help offered by monks to victims of the January Uprising
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Piątnica
Piątnica
Piątnica
[pjɔntˈnit͡sa] (until 1999 Piątnica
Piątnica
Poduchowna) is a village in Łomża
Łomża
County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.[1] It is the seat of gmina (administrative district) called Gmina
Gmina
Piątnica. It lies approximately 4 kilometres (2 mi) north of Łomża
Łomża
and 73 km (45 mi) west of the regional capital Białystok. In 2006 the village had a population of 1,800. History[edit] Piątnica
Piątnica
was founded by Janusz from Zaborowo who built the first church there (1407). The village has also a Neo-Gothic church (1931), which was destroyed during the Second World War and reconstructed after that. There are also Russian forts from the 19th century and from the First World War
First World War
in its vicinity
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Operation Barbarossa
Frontline strength (initial)3.8 million personnel[1][2] 3,350–3,795 tanks[3][1][4][5] 3,030–3,072 other AFVs[6][7] 2,770–5,369 aircraft[3][8] 7,200–23,435 artillery pieces[1][3][5] 17,081 mortars[5]Frontline strength (initial)2.6–2.9 million personnel[9][10][11] 11,000 tanks[12][13] 7,133–9,100 military aircraft[14][15][16]Casualties and lossesTotal military casualties: 1,000,000+BreakdownCasualties of 1941:According to German Army medical reports (including Army Norway):[17]186,452 killed 40,157 missing 655,179 wounded in action[a] 8,000 evacuated sick2,827 aircraft destroyed[18] 2,735 tanks destroyed[4][19] 104 assault guns destroyed[4][19]Other involved country losses 114,000+ casualties (at least 39,000 dead or missing)[b] 8,700 casualties[c] 5,000+ casualties[d]Total military casualties: 4,973,820BreakdownCasualties of 1941:Based on Soviet archives:[21]
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Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈlʊtvɪçsˌbʊrk]) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Stuttgart
Stuttgart
city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg district
Ludwigsburg district
with about 88,000 inhabitants
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish 20.8% Arab 4.5% other[5]Religion (2016)74.7% Jewish 17.7% Muslim
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Giessen
Giessen, spelled Gießen in German (German pronunciation: [ˈɡiːsn̩]), is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of both the district of Giessen
Giessen
and the administrative region of Giessen
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Hessen
Hesse
Hesse
(/ˈhɛsə/)[4] or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian dialect: Hesse
Hesse
[ˈhɛzə]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main. Until the unification of Germany, the territory of Hesse
Hesse
was occupied by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse, which includes both the State of Hesse
Hesse
and the area known as Rhenish Hesse
Rhenish Hesse
(Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects
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