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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Zunbils
Zunbil, also written as Zhunbil, was a royal dynasty south of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in present southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
region. They ruled from the early 7th century until the Saffarid conquest in 870 AD
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Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 42°N 63°E / 42°N 63°E / 42; 63 Republic
Republic
of Uzbekistan O'zbekiston Respublikasi  (Uzbek)FlagState emblem[1]Anthem:  Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi State Anthem of the Republic
Republic
of Uzbeki
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Principality Of Chaghaniyan
The Principality of Chaghaniyan, known in Arabic
Arabic
sources as al-Saghaniyan, was a local Iranian dynasty, which ruled the Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
region from the early 7th-century to the late 8th-century. The rulers of the region were known by their titles of “Chaghan Khudah” (Middle Iranian; Čagīnīgān Xvaday, meaning “the lord of Chaghaniyan”).a[›]Contents1 History 2 Notes 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesHistory[edit]Coin of a Chaghan Khudah or Hephthalite
Hephthalite
ruler written in Sogdian.During the early 7th-century, Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
became independent from Hephthalite
Hephthalite
rule, and came under the control of local rulers known as the “Chaghan Khudah”.[1] During the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Chaghan Khudah aided their kinsmen, the Sasanians, during their struggle against the Rashidun Arabs
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan[b] (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] ( listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan),[4][13] is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi).[4][14] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is the dominant nation of Central Asia
Central Asia
economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry
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Kyrgyzstan
Coordinates: 41°N 75°E / 41°N 75°E / 41; 75Kyrgyz Republic Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz) Республика Киргизстан (Russian)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни Kyrgyz Respublikasının Mamlekettik Gimni National Anthem of the Kyrgyz RepublicLocation of  Kyrgyzstan  (green)Capital and largest city Bishkek 42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.600°E / 42.867; 74.600Official languages[1]Kyrgyz (national and official) Russian (official)Ethnic groups (2016)73.0% Kyrgyz[2] 14.6% Uzbek 6.0% Russian 1.1% Chinese 5.3% othersReligion Islam, Christianity
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation•  Khanate of Khi
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History Of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
harkens to the Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
(875–999). The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s. The Basmachi revolt
Basmachi revolt
broke out in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
and was quelled in the early 1920s during the Russian Civil War. In 1924 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
became an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union, the Tajik ASSR, within Uzbekistan. In 1929 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was made one of the component republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) – and it kept that status until gaining independence 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[1] It has since experienced three changes in government and the Tajik civil war
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Uigur
The Uyghurs (/ˈwiːɡʊərz/,[16] /uːiˈɡʊərz/)[17][18] are a Turkic ethnic group living in East and Central Asia. Today, Uyghurs live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, where they are one of 55 officially recognized ethnic minorities. Uyghurs primarily practice Islam
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Early History Of Tajikistan
This article documents the early history of Tajikistan. Before the Soviet era, which began in Central Asia
Central Asia
in the early 1920s, the area designated today as the Republic of Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
underwent a series of population changes that brought with them political and cultural influences from the Turkic and Mongol
Mongol
peoples of the Eurasian steppe, China, Iran, Russia, and other contiguous regions. The Tajik people came fully under Russian rule after a series of military campaigns that began in the 1860s, at the end of the nineteenth century.Contents1 Ethnic background 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesEthnic background[edit] Iranian peoples, including ancestors of the modern Tajiks, have inhabited Central Asia
Central Asia
since at least the earliest recorded history of the region, which began some 2,500 years ago
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Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Шӯравии Сотсиалистии Тоҷикистон, Çumhurii Şūravii Sotsialistii Toçikiston; Russian: Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Tadzhikskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly known as Soviet Tajikistan and Tajik SSR, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1929 to 1991 located in Central Asia. The Tajik Republic was created on 5 December 1929 as a national entity for the Tajik people within the Soviet Union. It succeeded the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR), which had been created on 14 October 1924 as a part of the predominantly Turkic Uzbek SSR in the process of national delimitation in Soviet Central Asia. On 24 August 1990, the Tajik SSR declared sovereignty in its borders
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Timeline Of Tajikistani History
This is a timeline of Tajikistani history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Tajikistan. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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Tarim Basin
Coordinates: 39°N 83°E / 39°N 83°E / 39; 83Tarim Basin  Dzungaria   Tarim BasinChinese nameChinese 塔里木盆地TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Tǎlǐmù PéndìWade–Giles T'a3-li3-mu4 P'en2-ti4IPA [tʰàlìmû pʰə̌ntî]NanjiangChinese 南疆Literal meaning Southern XinjiangTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin NánjiāngWade–Giles Nan2-chiang1IPA [nǎntɕjáŋ]Uyghur nameUyghurتارىم ئويمانلىقىTranscriptionsLatin Yëziqi Tarim OymanliqiYengi Yeziⱪ Tarim OymanliⱪiSiril Yëziqi Тарим ойманлиқиThe Tarim Basin
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