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Hepburn Romanization
Hepburn romanization
Hepburn romanization
(ヘボン式ローマ字, Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1] The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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National Diet Library
The National Diet
National Diet
Library (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the national library of Japan
Japan
and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet
National Diet
of Japan (国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy
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Kanō Jigorō
Kanō Jigorō
Kanō Jigorō
(嘉納 治五郎, 28 October 1860 – 5 May 1938) was a Japanese educator and athlete, the founder of Judo. Judo
Judo
was the first Japanese martial art
Japanese martial art
to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical
Pedagogical
innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking among members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort" (精力善用 Sei-ryoku Zen-yō)and "Mutual Welfare and Benefit"(自他共栄 Ji-ta Kyō-ei). In his professional life, Kanō was an educator
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Cabinet Of Japan
The Cabinet of Japan
Japan
(内閣, Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. It consists of the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the National Diet, and up to nineteen other members, called Ministers of State. The Prime Minister is designated by the Diet, and the remaining ministers are appointed and dismissed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet is collectively responsible to the Diet and must resign if a motion of no confidence is adopted by the Diet.Contents1 Appointment 2 Powers2.1 Powers exercised via the Emperor 2.2 Explicit powers3 Current Cabinet of Japan 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 7 NotesAppointment[edit] Under the constitution, Cabinet ministers are appointed after the selection of the Prime Minister. A majority of the Cabinet, including the Prime Minister, must be members of the Diet, and all members must be civilians
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Orthography
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation. Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops in a more organic way
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Law Of Japan
The Law of Japan
Japan
refers to the entirety of the legally achieved norms in Japan.Contents1 Historical developments1.1 Pre-modern history 1.2 Modern developments and Japanese law today2 Sources of law2.1 The Modern Japanese Legal System's Six Codes3 Precedent 4 Civil law4.1 Contracts 4.2 Torts 4.3 Property5 Corporate law 6 Criminal law 7 Intellectual property law 8 Family law 9 Employment law 10 Law enforcement 11 Legal professions 12 Courts and procedure 13 Case law 14 See also14.1 Specific laws15 References 16 Further reading 17 External linksHistorical developments[edit] Pre-modern history[edit] Further information: Ritsuryō The early laws of Japan
Japan
believed to have been heavily influenced by Chinese law.[1] Little is known about Japanese law prior to the seventh century, when the Ritsuryō
Ritsuryō
was developed and codified
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Latin Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c
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Supreme Commander For The Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
(SCAP) (originally briefly styled Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers[1]) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. In Japan, the position was generally referred to as GHQ (General Headquarters), as SCAP also referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U.S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel effectively wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet
National Diet
then ratified after a few amendments
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Occupation Of Japan
A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career
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American National Standards Institute
The American National Standards Institute
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI, /ˈænsi/ AN-see) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.[3] The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way
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Ministry Of Foreign Affairs (Japan)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (外務省, Gaimu-shō) is a cabinet level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations. The ministry was established by the second term of the third article of the National Government Organization Act [1][permanent dead link], and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Establishment Act
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Ministry Of International Trade And Industry
The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (通商産業省 Tsūshō-sangyō-shō or MITI) was one of the most powerful agencies of the Government of Japan. At the height of its influence, it effectively ran much of Japanese industrial policy, funding research and directing investment. In 2001, its role was taken over by the newly created Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
(METI).Contents1 History 2 Agencies 3 Deputy ministers 4 See also 5 Sources 6 External linksHistory[edit] MITI was created with the split of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in May 1949 and given the mission for coordinating international trade policy with other groups, such as the Bank of Japan, the Economic planning Agency, and the various commerce-related cabinet ministries. At the time it was created, Japan was still recovering from the economic disaster of World War II
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The Japan Times
The Japan Times
Japan Times
is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.[1][2] It is published by The Japan Times, Ltd. (株式会社 ジャパン タイムズ, Kabushiki gaisha
Kabushiki gaisha
Japan Taimuzu), a subsidiary of Nifco, a manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries since 1983
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Japan Travel Bureau
JTB Corporation
JTB Corporation
(株式会社ジェイティービー, Kabushiki Gaisha Jeitībī) (aka JTB), is the largest travel agency in Japan
Japan
and one of the largest travel agencies in the world. It specializes in tourism. There are branches all over the world to help Japanese and non-Japanese guests in both private leisure and corporate / business fields. It was formerly owned by the Japanese government. It is headquartered in the JTB Building in Shinagawa, Tokyo.[1] History[edit] The company was established as " Japan
Japan
Tourist Bureau (ジャパンツーリストビューロー, Japan
Japan
Tsūrisuto Byūrō)" in 1912, primarily serving foreign visitors to Japan. In 1941 the company was renamed as East Asian Travel Agent (東亜旅行社, Tōa Ryokōsha), and in the following year changed its status from corporation to foundation, while still retaining its travel agency functions
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