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Heparin Sodium Sample
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is a medication and naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan.[3][4] As a medication it is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).[3] Specifically it is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina.[3] It is given by injection into a vein or under the skin.[3] Other uses include inside test tubes and kidney dialysis machines.[4][5] Common side effects include bleeding, pain at the injection site, and low blood platelets.[3] Serious side effects include heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.[3] Greater care is needed in those with poor kidney function.[3] Heparin
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American Society Of Health-System Pharmacists
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Pharmacists
(ASHP) is a professional organization representing the interests of pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, long-term care facilities, home care, and other components of health care. Previously it was known as the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. As of 2018[update], ASHP has 45,000 members and a staff of more than 200.Contents1 History 2 Aim 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] By 1939 a subsection of hospital pharmacists was formed in the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA), and for the first time, hospital pharmacists had a voice in a national organization. In 1942, hospital pharmacists established the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, affiliated with APhA
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Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.[1] Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants.[2][3] During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours and the duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast.[4] Older children feed less often.[5] Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible.[1] Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
has a n
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Anticoagulant
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time. Some of them occur naturally in blood-eating animals such as leeches and mosquitoes, where they help keep the bite area unclotted long enough for the animal to obtain some blood. As a class of medications, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are taken by many people in pill or tablet form, and various intravenous anticoagulant dosage forms are used in hospitals. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and dialysis equipment. Anticoagulants are closely related to antiplatelet drugs and thrombolytic drugs by manipulating the various pathways of blood coagulation
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Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
(MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more ofte
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Unstable Angina
Unstable angina (UA) is a type of angina pectoris[1] that is irregular.[2] It is also classified as a type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).[3] It can be difficult to distinguish unstable angina from non-ST elevation (non-Q wave) myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).[4][5] They differ primarily in whether the ischemia is severe enough to cause sufficient damage to the heart's muscular cells to release detectable quantities of a marker of injury (typically troponin T or troponin I). Unstable angina is considered to be present in patients with ischemic symptoms suggestive of an ACS and no elevation in troponin, with or without ECG changes indicative of ischemia (e.g., ST segment depression or transient elevation or new T wave
T wave
inversion)
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Intravenous
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
(IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips
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Test Tube
A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top and closed at the bottom. Test tubes
Test tubes
are usually placed in special-purpose racks.Contents1 Types and usage1.1 Chemistry 1.2 Biosciences 1.3 Clinical medicine 1.4 Other uses2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes and usage[edit] Chemistry[edit]
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Kidney Dialysis Machines
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way
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Thrombocytopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Thrombocytopenia
is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.[2] A normal human platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood.[3] These limits are determined by the 2.5th lower and upper percentile, so values outside this range do not necessarily indicate disease
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Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
(HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant. HIT predisposes to thrombosis (the abnormal formation of blood clots inside a blood vessel) because platelets release microparticles that activate thrombin, thereby leading to thrombosis. When thrombosis is identified the condition is called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT). HIT is caused by the formation of abnormal antibodies that activate platelets. If someone receiving heparin develops new or worsening thrombosis, or if the platelet count falls, HIT can be confirmed with specific blood tests.[1] The treatment of HIT requires stopping heparin treatment, and both protection from thrombosis and choice of an agent that will not reduce the platelet count any further
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Poor Kidney Function
Kidney
Kidney
failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term).[5] Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion.[1] Complications of acute disease may include uremia, high blood potassium, or volume overload.[2] Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.[3][4] Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medica
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Pregnancy
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.[4] A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.[13] Pregnancy
Pregnancy
can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.[6] Childbirth
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Basophil
Basophils are a type of white blood cells. Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells.[2] However, they are the largest type of granulocyte. They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever.[3] They can perform phagocytosis (cell eating), produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting[4], although there are less than that found in Mast cell
Mast cell
granules[5]
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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Mast Cell
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte[1]) is a type of white blood cell. Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood–brain barrier function.[2][3] The mast cell is very similar in both appearance and function to the basophil, another type of white blood cell
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