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Henry Warburton
HENRY WARBURTON (12 November 1784 – 16 September 1858) was an English merchant and politician, and also an enthusiastic amateur scientist. Elected as Member of Parliament for Bridport , Dorset, in the 1826 general election , he held the seat for 15 years until his resignation from the House of Commons in 1841. He was returned to the Commons at a by-election in November 1843, for Kendal , but did not seek re-election in 1847 . On Parliament he was active in the reform of bankruptcy, the repeal of stamp duty on newspapers, introduction of the penny post and in the campaigns of the Anti-Corn Law League
Anti-Corn Law League
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 In politics * 3 References * 4 External links EARLY LIFEThe son of John Warburton of Eltham
Eltham
, Kent, a timber merchant, he was educated at Eton College , and at Trinity College, Cambridge , where he was admitted 24 June 1802, aged 18. He was in the first class of the college examinations as freshman in 1803, and as junior soph in 1804. He was admitted scholar on 13 April 1804, graduated B.A. (being twelfth wrangler and placed next to Ralph Bernal ) in 1806, and proceeded M.A. in 1812
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George Hayter
SIR GEORGE HAYTER (17 December 1792 – 18 January 1871) was a notable English painter , specialising in portraits and large works involving in some cases several hundred individual portraits. Queen Victoria appreciated his merits and appointed Hayter her Principal Painter in Ordinary and also awarded him a Knighthood 1841. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Travel to Italy * 3 Historical Portraiture * 4 Return to the Continent * 5 Royal Patronage * 6 Hayter\'s later years * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 Gallery * 11 External links EARLY LIFE Self portrait of George Hayter aged 28, painted in 1820 (National Portrait Gallery) Hayter was the son of Charles Hayter (1761–1835), a miniature painter and popular drawing-master and teacher of perspective who was appointed Professor of Perspective and Drawing to Princess Charlotte and published a well-known introduction to perspective and other works. Initially tutored by his father, he went to the Royal Academy Schools early in 1808, but in the same year, after a disagreement about his art studies, ran away to sea as a Midshipman in the Royal Navy. His father secured his release, and they came to an agreement that Hayter should assist him while pursuing his own studies
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Merchant
A MERCHANT is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people to earn a profit . A merchant historically was anyone who was involved in business as long as industry, commerce, and trade have existed. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In modern times, the term occasionally has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fueling economic development and growth. A scale or balance is often used to symbolise a merchant Merchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in trade and commerce. Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phoenecia and Rome. During the European medieval period, a rapid expansion in trade and commerce, led to the rise of a wealthy and powerful merchant class. The European age of discovery opened up new trading routes and gave European consumers access to a much broader range of goods. From the 1600s, goods began to travel much further distances as they found their way into geographically dispersed market places
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Bridport (UK Parliament Constituency)
BRIDPORT was a parliamentary borough in Dorset , England, which elected two Members of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1868, and then one member from 1868 until 1885, when the borough was abolished. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Members of Parliament * 2.1 MPs 1295–1640 * 2.2 MPs 1640–1868 * 2.3 MPs 1868–1885 * 3 Notes * 4 Election results * 5 References HISTORY Bridport was continuously represented in Parliament from the first. The medieval borough consisted of the parish of Bridport , a small port and market town, where the main economic interests were sailcloth and rope-making, as well as some fishing. (For some time in the 16th century, the town had a monopoly of making all cordage for the navy.) By 1831, the population of the borough was 4,242, and the town contained 678 houses. The right to vote was at one period reserved to the town corporation (consisting of two bailiffs and 13 "capital burgesses"), but from 1628 it was exercised by all inhabitant householders paying scot and lot . This was a relatively liberal franchise for the period but nevertheless meant that only a fraction of the townsmen could vote: in 1806 , the general election at which Bridport had the highest turnout in the last few years before the Reform Act , a total of 260 residents voted
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United Kingdom General Election, 1826
A GENERAL OFFICER is an officer of high rank in the army , and in some nations' air forces or marines . The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century , as a shortening of captain general , which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank . However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. CONTENTS* 1 General officer ranks * 1.1 Common systems * 1.1.1 French (Revolutionary) system * 1.1.2 Arab system * 1.2 Other variations * 2 Specific rank of general * 3 General ranks by country * 3.1 Army
Army
generals\' insignia * 3.2 Air force
Air force
generals\' insignia * 3.3 Naval infantry generals\' insignia * 3.4 Generals\' insignia of disbanded armies * 4 Air force
Air force
and naval equivalents * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links GENERAL OFFICER RANKSThe various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure
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Resignation From The British House Of Commons
Members of Parliament (MPs) sitting in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are technically not permitted to resign their seats. To circumvent this prohibition, a legal fiction is used. Formerly, appointment to an "office of profit under the Crown " disqualified an individual from sitting as an MP. Hence an MP who wished to give up his or her seat would ask to be appointed to such an office – one which no longer has any duties associated with it – thus causing disqualification and vacation of the seat. Offices of profit are no longer disqualifying, but appointment to various specified offices is, and two offices are specified as disqualifying for this purpose: the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds and of the Manor of Northstead . CONTENTS * 1 Principal offices * 2 History * 2.1 First usage * 2.2 Refusal * 2.3 Sinn Féin resignations * 3 Present law * 4 Notice and orders * 5 Former offices * 6 See also * 7 References PRINCIPAL OFFICES Members of Parliament (MPs) wishing to give up their seats before a general election are commonly appointed to an office which causes the MP to be disqualified from membership. A number of offices have been used for this purpose historically, all of them "offices of profit under the Crown", but only two are currently used
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Kendal (UK Parliament Constituency)
KENDAL was a parliamentary borough centred on the town of Kendal in Westmorland . It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom , elected by the first past the post system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Boundaries * 3 Members of Parliament * 4 Elections * 4.1 Elections in the 1880s * 4.2 Elections in the 1890s * 4.3 Elections in the 1900s * 4.4 Elections in the 1910s * 5 References HISTORYThe constituency was created by the Reform Act 1832 for the 1832 general election , and abolished for the 1918 general election . The small Kendal parliamentary borough constituency created in 1832 was abolished in 1885 by the Reform Act 1884 . James Cropper , Liberal , being its last MP. The constituency after 1885 was a result of dividing the Westmorland constituency which up to then had two members since 1297. Thereafter it was the Kendal Division of Westmorland and the other being the Appleby Division. The two Conservative members for the old constituency William Lowther and the Earl of Bective were reelected in the 1885 general election , Mr Lowther for the Appleby Division and the Earl of Bective for the Kendal Division. These two constituencies were recombined under one member John Wakefield Weston for the 1918 general election
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United Kingdom General Election, 1847
Lord John Russell Whig SUBSEQUENT PRIME MINISTERLord John Russell Whig * 1837 election * MPs * 1841 election * MPs * 1847 election * MPs * 1852 election * MPs * 1857 election * MPs The 1847 UNITED KINGDOM GENERAL ELECTION saw candidates calling themselves Conservatives win the most seats, in part because they won a number of uncontested seats. However, the split among the Conservatives between the majority of Protectionists, led by Lord Stanley , and the minority of free traders, known also as the Peelites , led by former prime minister Sir Robert Peel , left the Whigs, led by Prime Minister Lord John Russell , in a position to continue in government. The Irish Repeal group won more seats than in the previous general election, while the Chartists gained the only seat they were ever to hold, Nottingham 's second seat, held by Chartist leader Feargus O\'Connor . The election also witnessed the election of Britain's first Jewish MP; the Liberal Lionel de Rothschild in the City of London . Members being sworn in were however required to swear the Christian Oath of Allegiance , meaning Rothschild was unable actually to take his seat until the passage of the Jews Relief Act in 1858
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Parliament Of The United Kingdom
HM GOVERNMENT * Conservative Party (254)CONFIDENCE AND SUPPLY * Democratic Unionist Party (4)HM MOST LOYAL OPPOSITION * Labour Party (201)OTHER OPPOSITION * Liberal Democrats (101) * Non-affiliated (31) * UKIP (3) * Ind. Labour (2) * Ulster Unionist Party (2) * Green Party (1) * Ind. Social Democrat (1) * Ind. Ulster Unionist (1) * Plaid Cymru (1)CROSSBENCH * Crossbenchers (177)LORDS SPIRITUAL * Bishops (25) (sits with government) SPEAKER * Lord Speaker COMMONS POLITICAL GROUPS HM GOVERNMENT * Conservative Party (316)CONFIDENCE AND SUPPLY * Democratic Unionist Party (10)HM MOST LOYAL OPPOSITION * Labour Party (262)OTHER OPPOSITION * Scottish National Party (35) * Liberal Democrats (12) * Sinn Féin (7) * Plaid Cymru (4) * Green Party (1 ) * Independent Unionist (1 )* Independent (1 )SPEAKER * Speaker (1) ELECTIONS COMMONS LAST ELECTION 8 June 2017 MEETING PLACE Palace of Westminster , London, United Kingdom WEBSITE www.parliament.ukThe PARLIAMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, commonly known as the UK PARLIAMENT or BRITISH PARLIAMENT, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories
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Stamp Duty
STAMP DUTY is a tax that is levied on documents. Historically, this included the majority of legal documents such as cheques , receipts, military commissions, marriage licences and land transactions. A physical stamp (a revenue stamp ) had to be attached to or impressed upon the document to denote that stamp duty had been paid before the document was legally effective. More modern versions of the tax no longer require an actual stamp. The duty is thought to have originated in Spain, being introduced (or re-invented) in the Netherlands in the 1620s, France in 1651, Denmark in 1657, Prussia in 1682 and England in 1694. CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Denmark * 3 European Union * 4 Hong Kong * 5 Ireland * 6 Singapore * 7 Sweden * 8 United Kingdom * 9 United States * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links AUSTRALIA A Stamp Duty revenue stamp of Tasmania from 1892. The Australian Federal Government does not levy stamp duty. However, stamp duties are levied by the Australian states on various instruments (written documents) and transactions. Stamp duty laws can differ significantly between all 8 jurisdictions. The rates of stamp duty also differ between the jurisdictions (typically up to 5.5%) as do the nature of instruments and transactions subject to duty. Some jurisdictions no longer require a physical document to attract what is now often referred to as "TRANSACTION DUTY"
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Penny Post
The PENNY POST is any one of several postal systems in which normal letters could be sent for one penny . Five such schemes existed in the United Kingdom while the United States initiated at least three such simple fixed rate postal arrangements. CONTENTS* 1 United Kingdom * 1.1 London Penny Post * 1.2 Local Penny Post * 1.3 Uniform Fourpenny Post * 1.4 Uniform Penny Post * 1.5 Imperial Penny Post * 2 United States * 3 References and source * 4 Further reading * 5 External links UNITED KINGDOMLONDON PENNY POST Postmark and time stamps from Lime St office Main article: London Penny Post In England , the postal service, from 1660 General Post Office , had developed into a monopoly, affirmed by Oliver Cromwell in 1654, for the collection and carriage of letters between post towns, however, there was no delivery system until William Dockwra and his partner Robert Murray established the LONDON PENNY POST in 1680. They set up a local post that used a uniform rate of one old penny for delivery of letters and packets weighing up to one pound within the cities of Westminster and London as well as in Southwark
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Anti-Corn Law League
The ANTI-CORN LAW LEAGUE was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws , which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages. CONTENTS * 1 Corn Laws * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 Further reading * 4.1 Scholarly studies * 4.2 Historiography * 4.3 Contemporary publications * 5 External links CORN LAWSThe _Corn Laws_ were taxes on imported grain designed to keep prices high for cereal producers in Great Britain. The laws indeed did raise food prices and became the focus of opposition from urban groups who had far less political power than rural Britain. The corn laws imposed steep import duties, making it too expensive for anyone to import grain from other countries, even when food supplies were short. The laws were supported by Conservative landowners and opposed by Whig industrialists and workers. The League was responsible for turning public and elite opinion against the laws. It was a large, nationwide middle-class moral crusade with a utopian vision. Its leading advocate Richard Cobden , according to historian Asa Briggs , promised that repeal would settle four great problems simultaneously: First, it would guarantee the prosperity of the manufacturer by affording him outlets for his products
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Eltham
ELTHAM (/ˈɛltəm/ ) is a district of south east London
London
, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich . It is located 8.7 miles (14.0 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
, and identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London
Greater London
. The three wards of Eltham
Eltham
North, South and West have a total population of 35,459. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Early development * 1.3 Suburban development after 1900 * 2 Geography * 2.1 Description and location * 2.2 Parks and open spaces * 3 Demographics * 3.1 Migration and ethnicity * 4 Culture, identity and community * 5 Education * 6 Sport and leisure * 7 Transport * 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Roads * 7.3 Buses * 8 Notable residents * 9 Bibliography * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORYORIGINS Eltham
Eltham
developed along part of the road from London
London
to Maidstone and lies 3 miles (4.8 km) almost due south of Woolwich
Woolwich
. Mottingham , to the south, became part of the parish on the abolition of all extra-parochial areas , which were rare anomalies in the parish system. Eltham College and other parts of Mottingham were even before the 1860s therefore not considered within Eltham's boundaries
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Eton College
ETON COLLEGE /iːtən/ is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton , Berkshire
Berkshire
, near Windsor . It educates more than 1,300 pupils, aged 13 to 18 years. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as "The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor", making it the 18th oldest Headmasters\' and Headmistresses\' Conference (HMC) school. Eton is one of the original seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868
Public Schools Act 1868
. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means all pupils live at the school, and it is one of four such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(the others being Harrow , Radley , and Winchester ) to continue this practice. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as the chief nurse of England's statesmen
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Trinity College, Cambridge
TRINITY COLLEGE is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates , and over 180 fellows , it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge
Oxbridge
universities by number of undergraduates. By combined student numbers, it is second to Homerton College, Cambridge . Members of Trinity
Trinity
have won 32 Nobel Prizes out of the 91 won by members of Cambridge University
Cambridge University
, the highest number of any college. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college (of the six awarded to members of British universities) and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity
Trinity
alumni include six British prime ministers (all Tory or Whig /Liberal ), physicists Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
, James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr , mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan
Srinivasa Ramanujan
, the poet Lord Byron
Lord Byron
, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell (whom it expelled before reaccepting), and Soviet spies Kim Philby , Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt
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Ralph Bernal
RALPH BERNAL (2 October 1783 or 2 October 1784 – 26 August 1854) was a British Whig politician and art collector. His parents, Jacob Israel Bernal and wife Leah da Silva, were Sephardi Jews of Spanish and Portuguese origin, but he was baptised at St Olave Hart Street in London . His father was a merchant . During his youth he became an actor and he performed to acclaim in several works by William Shakespeare , during which time he gained a reputation for oratory . He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Lincoln 1818-20 and MP for Rochester from 1820–41 and again from 1847-52. From 1842-47 he was MP for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis . Bernal was president of the British Archaeological Society in 1853. He built up a substantial collection of glass, ceramics and other art objects, which were auctioned after his death, with the 4,000 lots selling for £70,000. He married Ann Elizabeth White in April 1806. His eldest son was Ralph Bernal Osborne (1808–1882), a politician, who took on the surname Osborne on marrying the daughter of Sir Thomas Osborne, 9th Baronet . REFERENCES * ^ A B C Davies, Helen (2004). "Bernal, Ralph (1783–1854)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 November 2010. available online to subscribers, and also in print * ^ A B Rayment, Leigh. "Rochester (Kent)". House of Commons. Retrieved 15 November 2010
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