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Henry L. Stimson
HENRY LEWIS STIMSON (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician and spokesman on foreign policy. He served as Secretary of War (1911–1913) under Republican William Howard Taft , and as Governor-General of the Philippines (1927–1929). As Secretary of State (1929–1933) under Republican President Herbert Hoover , he articulated the Stimson Doctrine which announced American opposition to Japanese expansion in Asia. He again served as Secretary of War (1940–1945) under Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman , and was a leading hawk calling for war against Germany. During World War II he took charge of raising and training 13 million soldiers and airmen, supervised the spending of a third of the nation's GDP on the Army and the Air Forces, helped formulate military strategy, and oversaw the Manhattan Project , which built the first atomic bombs, and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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United States Secretary Of War
The SECRETARY OF WAR was a member of the United States President\'s Cabinet , beginning with George Washington\'s administration . A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War," had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and later Henry Knox held the position. When Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution , he appointed Knox to continue serving. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department . At first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs . In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, and the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army . From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency , after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State . In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947 , the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force , which, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * 1932 campaign * Election * 1st Inauguration * First 100 days * New Deal * Glass-Steagall Act * WPA * Social Security * SEC * Fireside Chats -------------------------SECOND TERM * 1936 campaign * Election * 2nd Inauguration * Supreme Court Packing * National Recovery Act * 1937 Recession * March of Dimes * Pre-war foreign policy -------------------------THIRD TERM * 1940 campaign * Election * 3rd Inauguration * WORLD WAR II* World War II * Attack on Pearl Harbor * Infamy Speech * Atlantic Charter * Japanese Internment * Tehran Conference * United Nations * D-Day * Second Bill of Rights * G.I
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Harry S. Truman
World War I
World War I
* Western Front HARRY S. TRUMAN (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1945–53), assuming that office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II . He is known for launching the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, for leading the Cold War against Soviet and Chinese communism by establishing the Truman Doctrine and NATO
NATO
, and for intervening in the Korean War . In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal , but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He used the veto power 180 times, more than any president since then , and saw 12 overridden by Congress; only Grover Cleveland and Franklin D. Roosevelt used the veto so often, and only Gerald Ford and Andrew Johnson saw so many veto overrides. He also used nuclear weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U.S. armed forces , supported a newly independent Israel
Israel
, and was a founder of the United Nations
United Nations

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Robert P. Patterson
ROBERT PORTER PATTERSON SR. (February 12, 1891 – January 22, 1952) was the United States
United States
Under Secretary of War under President Franklin Roosevelt and the United States Secretary of War under President Harry S. Truman from September 27, 1945 to July 18, 1947. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Career * 2.1 Government
Government
* 2.2 Private career * 3 Personal and death * 4 Works * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDPatterson was born in Glens Falls, New York on February 12, 1891, the son of Lodice Edna (née Porter) and Charles Robert Patterson. He graduated from Union College
Union College
and Harvard Law School . CAREERPatterson practiced law in New York City. He served in the United States
United States
Army during World War I
World War I
, and reached the rank of major. He received the Distinguished Service Cross and Silver Star
Silver Star
for heroism in France. Patterson served in the 306th Infantry Regiment which was assigned to the 77th Infantry Division . GOVERNMENTIn 1930, President Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
appointed Patterson as a judge of the United States
United States
District Court for the Southern District of New York . In 1939, President Franklin D
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John J. McCloy
JOHN JAY MCCLOY (March 31, 1895 – March 11, 1989), was an American lawyer and banker who served as Assistant Secretary of War during World War II . After the war he served as president of the World Bank , U.S. High Commissioner for Germany , chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank , and chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations . He later became a prominent United States presidential adviser, served on the Warren Commission , and was a member of the foreign policy establishment group of elders called "The Wise Men ." CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 First World War * 3 Wall Street lawyer * 4 Second World War * 4.1 Internment of Japanese-Americans * 4.2 Bombing of Auschwitz * 4.3 Ending war with Japan * 4.4 Involvement in other key decisions * 5 President of World Bank * 6 US High Commissioner for Germany * 7 Corporate leadership * 8 Warren Commission * 9 Atlantic Institute * 10 Law firm background * 11 Awards * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 Additional sources * 16 External links EARLY YEARSMcCloy was born in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania, the son of John J. McCloy (1862-1901) and Anna (née Snader) McCloy (1866-1959). His father was an insurance man who died when McCloy was five
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Harry Hines Woodring
HARRY HINES WOODRING (May 31, 1887 – September 9, 1967) was an American politician. A Democrat, he was the 25th Governor of Kansas and was Secretary of War in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt 's administration from 1936 to 1940. He was also the United States Assistant Secretary of War from 1933 to 1936. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career * 3 Death * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYHarry Hines Woodring was born in 1887 in Elk City, Kansas , the son of farmer and Union Army soldier Hines Woodring. He was educated in city and county schools and at sixteen began work as a janitor in the First National Bank of Neodesha, Kansas . He attended Lebanon Business University for one year, which gained him employment as a bookkeeper and assistant cashier of the First National Bank in Elk City. CAREERWoodring soon became assistant cashier at the First National Bank of Neodesha. Woodring moved up quickly to become vice president and owner of the bank until he enlisted as a private in the US Army . He was later commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Tank Corps in World War I. He was elected department commander of the American Legion in Kansas then in 1928 he sold his banking business to enter politics
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United States Secretary Of State
A SECRETARY or PERSONAL ASSISTANT is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events. CONTENTS * 1 Duties and functions * 2 Etymology * 3 Origin * 4 Modern developments * 5 Contemporary employment * 6 Training by country * 6.1 Belgium * 6.2 United States * 7 Executive assistant * 7.1 Civilian * 7.2 Military * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS _ This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (December 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_A secretary, typically known as _personal assistant_ (pa) or an _administrative assistant_, has many administrative duties. The title _secretary_ is not used as often as in decades past, and responsibilities have evolved to much more advance skill set such as mastering Microsoft Office applications; Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to name a few
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Herbert Hoover
HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression. A Republican, as Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s he introduced Progressive Era themes of efficiency in the business community and provided government support for standardization, efficiency and international trade. As president from 1929 to 1933, his ambitious programs were overwhelmed by the Great Depression , which seemed to get worse every year despite the increasingly large-scale interventions he made in the economy. He was defeated in a landslide in 1932 by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt , and spent the rest of his life as a conservative denouncing big government, liberalism and federal intervention in economic affairs, as Democrats repeatedly used his Depression record to attack conservatism and justify more regulation of the economy. A lifelong Quaker , he became a successful mining engineer around the globe and retired in 1912. In the First World War he built an international reputation as a humanitarian by leading relief efforts in Belgium during the war, and in Eastern Europe afterwards. He headed the U.S. Food Administration during World War I. His reputation as a Progressive businessman fighting for efficiency and elimination of waste was built as the Secretary of Commerce 1921–28
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Joseph P. Cotton
JOSEPH POTTER COTTON ( July 22, 1875 – March 10, 1931) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the United States Under Secretary of State from 1929 until his death in 1931. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 Further reading BIOGRAPHYCotton was born in Newport, Rhode Island on July 22, 1875. He earned a bachelor of arts degree from Harvard College in 1896 and graduated from Harvard Law School in 1900. In New York, he worked as a prominent lawyer and in 1907 became a member of the law firm Cravath, Henderson and De Gersdorff. In 1915, he went to Washington to work as a federal attorney for the Alaskan Railway Commission. He became a law partner of William Gibbs McAdoo in 1919 and founded the firm of McAdoo, Cotton & Franklin. He also served as the Chief of the US Food Administration's Meat Division where he became friends with President Herbert Hoover who then served as the head of the United States Food Administration . Cotton was a major policy adviser to Hoover and was appointed as the Under Secretary of State on June 7, 1929 when the latter became President. He served as the acting Secretary of State, and succeeded in maintaining the dominant influence of the United States, when Henry Stimson went to assist as the Chairman of the U.S. delegation to the London Naval Conference
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William R. Castle, Jr.
WILLIAM RICHARDS CASTLE JR. (June 19, 1878 – October 13, 1963) was an American educator and diplomat. With great wealth from his family's Hawaiian holdings, he rose rapidly to the highest levels of the United States Department of State . He took a strong interest in Pacific issues, in part because of his family's background in Hawaii . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Diplomat * 2.1 Japan * 2.2 Under Secretary * 2.3 Later years * 3 Works * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 Family tree LIFEWilliam Richards Castle Jr. was born in Honolulu on June 19, 1878, when it was the Kingdom of Hawaii . His father, William Richards Castle , served King David Kalākaua as attorney general and later as Hawaiian Minister to the United States, where he was an active proponent of annexation. His grandfather, Samuel Northrup Castle , founded the giant agricultural corporation Castle & Cooke . William Richards Castle Jr. graduated from Punahou School and then Harvard College in 1900, where he was a founding member of the Fox Club . His mentor was Professor Barrett Wendell . He remained at Harvard as an English instructor and assistant dean in charge of freshmen from 1904 to 1913. In 1910 he was President and one of the founders of the Hawaiian Trail & Mountain Club . From 1915 through 1917, he was editor of the Harvard Graduates' Magazine and wrote several articles for it. He published two novels and a book on Hawaiian history
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Frank B. Kellogg
FRANK BILLINGS KELLOGG (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American lawyer, politician and statesman who served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. Secretary of State . He co-authored the Kellogg–Briand Pact , for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 United States Senate * 2.2 Ambassador to Great Britain * 2.3 Secretary of State * 3 Personal life * 3.1 Legacy * 3.2 Papers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY LIFEKellogg was born in Potsdam, New York on December 22, 1856 to Frederick A. Kellogg (1851–1928) and Amy F. (née Bird) Kellogg (1855–1925). His brother was Clifford Frank Kellogg (1881–1946). His family moved to Minnesota in 1865. CAREERKellogg was a self-trained lawyer who began practicing law in Rochester, Minnesota , in 1877. He served as city attorney of Rochester 1878–1881 and county attorney for Olmsted County, Minnesota , from 1882 to 1887. He moved to St. Paul, Minnesota , in 1886. In 1905, Kellogg joined the federal government when Theodore Roosevelt asked Kellogg to prosecute a federal antitrust case. In 1906, Kellogg was appointed special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission for its investigation of E. H. Harriman
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Cordell Hull
CORDELL HULL (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee
Tennessee
. He is known as the longest-serving Secretary of State , holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II
World War II
. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations
United Nations
, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations". CONTENTS * 1 Life and government * 2 Early life * 3 Early national career * 4 U.S. Senate, Secretary of State * 5 SS _St. Louis_ incident * 6 United Nations
United Nations
establishment * 7 Later years * 8 Legacy * 9 Fictional appearance or mention * 10 Notes * 11 References * 11.1 Primary * 11.2 Secondary * 12 External links LIFE AND GOVERNMENT The Davis-Hull House in Carthage, Tennessee. The house was built by merchant Calvin Davis in 1889, and purchased by William Hull (the father of Cordell Hull) in 1906. Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
was born in a log cabin in Olympus, Tennessee
Tennessee
, which is now part of Pickett County, Tennessee
Tennessee
, but was then part of Overton County . He was the son of Elizabeth (née Riley) and William Pascal Hull
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Governor-General Of The Philippines
The GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINES (Spanish : _Gobernador-General de Filipinas_; Filipino : _Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas_; Japanese : フィリピン総督 (_Firipin sōtoku_);) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines , governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946) , and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945) . They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power. On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth ", as the chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines
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Calvin Coolidge
JOHN CALVIN COOLIDGE JR. (/ˈkuːlɪdʒ/ ; July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was the 30th President of the United States (1923–29). A Republican lawyer from Vermont , Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics , eventually becoming governor of that state. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th vice president in 1920 and succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924 , he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative , and also as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity. As a Coolidge biographer wrote, "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class , could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength." Coolidge's retirement was relatively short, as he died at the age of 60 in January 1933, less than two months before his immediate successor, Herbert Hoover , left office
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Eugene Allen Gilmore
EUGENE ALLEN GILMORE (July 4, 1871 – November 4, 1953) was Vice Governor-General of the Philippine Islands from 1922-1929, serving twice as acting Governor-General of the Philippines in 1927 and again in 1929; the Dean of the College of Law at the University of Iowa from 1930 to 1934; the twelfth President of the University of Iowa from 1934 to 1940; and the law dean at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law from 1940 to 1942. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYGilmore was born in Brownville, Nebraska to Andrew Gilmore and Sarah Jane Allen Hall. He received his B.A. degree from DePauw University in 1893, and his LL.B. from Harvard in 1899. He married Blanche Bayse of Rockport, Indiana on December 27, 1899. After practicing law in Boston , Massachusetts from 1899 to 1902, Gilmore served as faculty at the University of Wisconsin Law School from 1902 to 1922. He was the Vice Governor-General of the Philippine Islands from 1922-1929. The author of a number of articles and pamphlets and several books dealing with law, Gilmore also wrote a law encyclopedia of 15 volumes called Modern American Law. His first child, Eugene A. Gilmore, Jr., was born in 1902; Elizabeth (later Elizabeth Gilmore Holt ) in 1905, and John Andrew Gilmore in 1910. Gilmore died of a heart attack at his home in Iowa City, Iowa on November 4, 1953
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