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Henry Cole
SIR HENRY COLE (15 July 1808 – 18 April 1882) was a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland . Cole is credited with devising the concept of sending greetings cards at Christmas time, introducing the world's first commercial Christmas card in 1843. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Felix Summerly pseudonym * 3 Cole and the exhibitions * 4 Museums * 5 Honours and legacy * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY The world's first commercially produced Christmas card , made by Henry Cole
Henry Cole
1843. Henry Cole
Henry Cole
was born in Bath the son of Captain Henry Robert Cole, then of the 1st Dragoon Guards , and his wife Lætitia Dormer. He was sent in 1817 to Christ\'s Hospital , and upon leaving school in 1823 became clerk to Francis Palgrave , and then a sub-commissioner under the Record Commission . Cole was employed in transcribing records, but found time to study water-colour painting under David Cox , and exhibited sketches at the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
. He lived with his father in a house belonging to the novelist Thomas Love Peacock , who retained two rooms in it, and became a friend of young Cole
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Henry Cole (other)
HENRY COLE (1808-1882) was an English civil servant and inventor. HENRY COLE may also refer to: * Henry Cole (priest) (c. 1500–1579/80), English Roman Catholic churchman and academic * Henry Cole (minister) (1792–1858), Anglican curate * Henry Cole (Conservative politician) (1809–1890), British politician, cricketer and army officer * Henry Thomas Cole (1874–1880), British Member of Parliament for Penryn and Falmouth * Henry Cole (illustrator) (born 1955), American author and illustrator of children's booksSEE ALSO * Harry Cole (other) This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_Cole_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Woodburytype
A WOODBURYTYPE is both a printing process and the print that it produces. In technical terms, the process is a photomechanical rather than a photographic one, because sensitivity to light plays no role in the actual printing. The process produces very high quality continuous tone images in monochrome , with surfaces that show a slight relief effect. Essentially, a Woodburytype
Woodburytype
is a molded copy of an original photographic carbon print . The process was introduced by Walter B. Woodbury and was in use during the final third of the 19th century, most commonly for illustrating fine books with photographic portraits. It was ultimately displaced by halftone processes that produced prints of lower quality but were much cheaper. CONTENTS * 1 Process * 2 History * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links PROCESSA dichromate -sensitized sheet of gelatin is exposed to UV -rich light through a photographic negative , causing each area of the gelatin to harden to a depth proportional to the amount of exposure. It is then soaked in warm water to dissolve the unhardened portion of the gelatin. The resulting relief image is pressed into a thick sheet of lead under about 5000 pounds per square inch of pressure. This creates an intaglio metal printing plate, which is used as a mold
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800 , which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence , which resulted in Ireland
Ireland
seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the state was consequently renamed the " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The UK financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. The British Empire
British Empire
thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine , exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland, and increased calls for Irish land reform
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Christmas Card
A CHRISTMAS CARD is a greeting card sent as part of the traditional celebration of Christmas in order to convey between people a range of sentiments related to the Christmas and holiday season . Christmas cards are usually exchanged during the weeks preceding Christmas Day by many people (including non-Christians) in Western society and in Asia. The traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year". There are innumerable variations on this greeting, many cards expressing more religious sentiment, or containing a poem, prayer, Christmas song lyrics or Biblical verse ; others stay away from religion with an all-inclusive "Season's greetings". A Christmas card is generally commercially designed and purchased for the occasion. The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus , or have Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem or a white dove representing both the Holy Spirit and Peace
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Bath, Somerset
BATH (/ˈbɑːθ/ or /ˈbæθ/ ) is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset
Somerset
, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon , 97 miles (156 km) west of London
London
and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol
Bristol
. The city became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin
Latin
name _Aquæ Sulis
Sulis
_ ("the waters of Sulis") c. AD 60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known even before then. Bath Abbey
Bath Abbey
was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, and Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era
Georgian era
. Georgian architecture , crafted from Bath stone , includes the Royal Crescent , Circus , Pump Room , and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder , and in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew
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1st Dragoon Guards
The 1ST KING\'S DRAGOON GUARDS was a cavalry regiment in the British Army . The regiment was raised by Sir John Lanier in 1685 as the 2ND QUEEN\'S REGIMENT OF HORSE, named in honour of Queen Mary , consort of King James II . It was renamed the 2ND KING\'S OWN REGIMENT OF HORSE in 1714 in honour of George I . The regiment attained the title 1ST KING\'S DRAGOON GUARDS in 1751. The regiment served as horse cavalry until 1937 when it was mechanised with light tanks. The regiment became part of the Royal Armoured Corps in 1939. After service in the First World War and the Second World War , the regiment amalgamated with the 2nd Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards (Queen\'s Bays) in 1959 to form the 1st The Queen\'s Dragoon
Dragoon
Guards . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early history * 1.2 The Habsburg connection * 1.3 First World War * 1.4 Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
* 1.5 Second World War * 1.6 Post-war * 2 Battle honours * 3 Notable members of the regiment * 4 Colonels-in-Chief * 5 Regimental colonels * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links HISTORYEARLY HISTORYThe regiment was raised by Sir John Lanier in 1685 as LANIER\'S REGIMENT OF HORSE or the 2ND QUEEN\'S REGIMENT OF HORSE, named in honour of Queen Mary , consort of King James II , as part of the response to the Monmouth Rebellion
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Christ's Hospital
Blue color:; border:1px solid #000000; text-align:center;"> PUBLICATIONS Housey! The Blue The Broadie PATRON Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
FORMER PUPILS Old Blues SCHOOL SONG Votum The Foundation Hymn WEBSITE www.christs-hospital.org.ukCHRIST\'S HOSPITAL, known colloquially as the BLUECOAT SCHOOL , is an English co-educational independent day and boarding school located in Southwater , south of Horsham
Horsham
in West Sussex
West Sussex
. It is a charity school whose fees are calculated on a means test. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Uniform * 3 Admissions * 4 External inspection * 5 School activities * 5.1 Drama * 5.2 Model United Nations * 5.3 Rock School * 6 Houses * 7 Old Blues * 8 Staff * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Sources * 12 External links HISTORY Christ's Hospital's buildings in London in 1770 Christ's Hospital
Christ's Hospital
was established as a school in November 1552 at the instigation of King Edward VI . The king's patronage of the school was confirmed by a Royal Charter granted on 26 June 1553, eleven days before his death
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Francis Palgrave
SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE, KH FRS , born FRANCIS EPHRAIM COHEN, (July 1788 – 6 July 1861) was an English archivist and historian. He was Deputy Keeper (chief executive) of the Public Record Office from its foundation in 1838 until his death; and he is also remembered for his many scholarly publications. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Family * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEFrancis Cohen was born in London, the son of Meyer Cohen, a Jewish stockbroker (d. 1831) by his wife Rachel Levien Cohen (d. 1815). He was initially articled as a clerk to a London solicitor's firm, and remained there as chief clerk until 1822. His father was financially ruined in 1810 and Francis, the eldest son, became responsible for supporting his parents. Around 1814, Francis Cohen began contributing to the Edinburgh Review ; he made the acquaintance of the banker Dawson Turner and his daughter Elizabeth in 1819, offering to correct the proofs of Turner's Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. In 1821, Francis Cohen was admitted to the Fellowship of the Royal Society , one of his sponsors being Turner. Cohen converted to Anglican Christianity before his marriage to Elizabeth Turner on 13 October 1823. Around the time of his marriage, Cohen also changed his surname to "Palgrave" (his wife's mother's maiden name) by royal licence
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Record Commission
The RECORD COMMISSIONS were a series of six Royal Commissions of Great Britain and (from 1801) the United Kingdom which sat between 1800 and 1837 to inquire into the custody and public accessibility of the state archives . The Commissioners' work paved the way for the establishment of the Public Record Office in 1838. The Commissioners were also responsible for publishing various historical records, including the Statutes of the Realm (i.e. of England and Great Britain ) to 1714 and the Acts of Parliament of Scotland to 1707, as well as a number of important medieval records. Although the six Commissions were technically distinct from one another, there was a considerable degree of continuity between them, and it is common practice to regard them as a single entity and to refer to them in singular form as the RECORD COMMISSION. CONTENTS * 1 Activities * 2 Publications * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links ACTIVITIES Extract from the Patent Roll for 3 John (1201–2), as published by the Record Commission
Record Commission
in 1835 using record type The first Commission was established on 19 July 1800, on the recommendation of a Select Committee appointed earlier in the year, on the initiative and under the chairmanship of Charles Abbot , MP for Helston , "to inquire into the State of the Public Records of this kingdom"
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David Cox (artist)
DAVID COX (29 April 1783 – 7 June 1859) was an English landscape painter , one of the most important members of the Birmingham
Birmingham
School of landscape artists and an early precursor of impressionism . He is considered one of the greatest English landscape painters, and a major figure of the Golden age of English watercolour . Although most popularly known for his works in watercolour , he also painted over 300 works in oil towards the end of his career, now considered "one of the greatest, but least recognised, achievements of any British painter." CONTENTS * 1 Early life in Birmingham, 1783–1804 * 2 London, 1804–1814 * 3 Hereford, 1814–1827 * 4 London, 1827–1841 * 5 Birmingham, 1841–1859 * 6 Work * 6.1 Early work * 6.2 Mature work * 6.3 Later work * 7 Influence and legacy * 7.1 Public collections * 8 Gallery * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links EARLY LIFE IN BIRMINGHAM, 1783–1804 Cox's birthplace in Deritend , Birmingham
Birmingham
, illustrated by Samuel Lines Cox was born on 29 April 1783 on Heath Mill Lane in Deritend , then an industrial suburb of Birmingham
Birmingham
. His father was a blacksmith and whitesmith about whom little is known, except that he supplied components such as bayonets and barrels to the Birmingham
Birmingham
gun trade
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Royal Academy
The ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House
Burlington House
on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
in London. It has a unique position as an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects; its purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Royal Academy Schools * 4 Library, archive, and collections * 4.1 Wall and ceiling paintings * 4.2 Michelangelo\'s Taddei Tondo
Taddei Tondo
* 5 War memorials * 6 Membership * 7 See also * 8 References and sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. The motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, and to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest in the public based on recognised canons of good taste
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Thomas Love Peacock
THOMAS LOVE PEACOCK (18 October 1785 – 23 January 1866) was an English novelist , poet , and official of the East India Company
East India Company
. He was a close friend of Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley
and they influenced each other's work. Peacock wrote satirical novels , each with the same basic setting: characters at a table discussing and criticising the philosophical opinions of the day. CONTENTS * 1 Background and education * 2 Early occupation and travelling * 3 Friendship with Shelley * 4 East India Company
East India Company
* 5 Later life * 6 Family * 7 Works * 7.1 Novels * 7.2 Verse * 7.3 Essays * 7.4 Plays * 7.5 Unfinished tales and novels * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Bibliography * 10.1 Editions * 10.1.1 Correspondence * 10.2 Works of criticism * 11 External links BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION The young T.L. Peacock Peacock was born in Weymouth, Dorset , the son of Samuel Peacock and his wife Sarah Love, daughter of Thomas Love, a retired master of a man-of-war in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. His father was a glass merchant in London, partner of a Mr Pellatt, presumed to be Apsley Pellatt (1763–1826)
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John Stuart Mill
JOHN STUART MILL (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism , he contributed widely to social theory , political theory and political economy . Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism , an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham , and contributed significantly to the theory of the scientific method . A member of the Liberal Party , he was also the first Member of Parliament to call for women\'s suffrage
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Charles Buller
CHARLES BULLER (6 August 1806 – 29 November 1848), was a British barrister, politician and reformer. CONTENTS * 1 Background and education * 2 Political career * 3 Personal life * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUND AND EDUCATIONBorn in Calcutta , British India , Buller was the son of Charles Buller (1774–1848), a member of a well-known Cornish family, and Barbara Isabella Kirkpatrick, daughter of General William Kirkpatrick , considered an exceptionally talented woman. He was educated at Harrow , then privately in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
by Thomas Carlyle , and afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge , gaining his BA in 1828. He had been admitted to Lincoln\'s Inn in 1824, and became a barrister in 1831. POLITICAL CAREERBefore t