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Henri De Turenne (writer)
HENRI DE TURENNE (19 November 1921 – 23 August 2016) is a French journalist and screenwriter. He was born in Tours . The son of Armand de Turenne , a World War I
World War I
flying ace , he was raised in Germany and French Algeria , both countries becoming central creative themes in his adult work. After the Second World War , de Turenne worked as a journalist for Agence France-Presse , Le Figaro , France Soir
France Soir
, and ORTF , reporting from Allied-occupied Germany , covering the Korean War and the Algerian War , and, in 1952, winning the Prix Albert Londres . Since the mid-1960s, he worked primarily in television, notably on the French Grandes Batailles series for Pathé , making over a hundred documentaries. He won an Emmy
Emmy
in 1982 for a documentary on the Vietnam War . His fictional works include Les Alsaciens ou les deux Mathilde (1996), made for Arte
Arte
, for which he shared a 7 d\'Or with Michel Deutsch
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Tours
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. TOURS (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a city located in the centre-west of France
France
. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire
Loire
region of France
France
(although it is not the capital, which is the region's second-largest city, Orléans
Orléans
). In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, while the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744. Tours
Tours
stands on the lower reaches of the Loire
Loire
river, between Orléans
Orléans
and the Atlantic coast. The surrounding district, the traditional province of Touraine , is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection (as perceived by some speakers and for historical reasons) of its local spoken French, and for the Battle of Tours (732). The city is also the end-point of the annual Paris–Tours cycle race
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Armand De Turenne
Colonel ARMAND JEAN GALLIOT JOSEPH DE TURENNE, MARQUIS DE TURENNE D\'AUBEPEYRE (1 April 1891 – 10 December 1980) was a French World War I flying ace credited with 15 aerial victories . He went on to serve in the military until 1942. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and military career * 2 World War I * 3 Inter-war career * 4 World War II * 5 Personal life * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND MILITARY CAREERDe Turenne was born in Le Mans , Sarthe , the son of Guillaume Auguste Alyre Georges de Turenne and Marie Thérèse Madeleine Beaumevieille. On 15 April 1909 he volunteered to join the army for a period of three years, and served in the 10ème régiment de Chasseurs à cheval ("10th Light Cavalry Regiment"). He was promoted to brigadier ("corporal") on 10 February 1910 and to maréchal-des-logis ("sergeant") on 27 April 1911. His three years ended 13 April 1912, but he rejoined the army on 22 February 1913 and was posted to the 21ème régiment de Dragons ("21st Dragoon Regiment") based at Saint-Omer . He was promoted to maréchal des logis fourrier ("quartermaster-sergeant") on 18 December 1913. WORLD WAR IOn 10 August 1914, within a week of the outbreak of World War I, de Turenne was appointed an aspirant ("officer candidate")
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World War I
Allied victory (exception: Russian defeat) * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union * Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations . (more... ) BELLIGERENTSALLIED POWERS France British Empire Russia (until 1917) Serbia Montenegro Belgium Japan Italy (1915–18) Portugal (1916–18) Romania (1916–18) Hejaz (1916–18) United States (1917–18) Greece (1917–18) Siam (1917–18) ..._and others_ CENTRAL POWERS German Empire Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria (1915–18) ..._and co-belligerents_ COMMANDERS AND LEADERSALLIED LEADERS Georges Clemenceau Raymond Poincaré H. H
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Flying Ace
A FLYING ACE, FIGHTER ACE or AIR ACE is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. The actual number of aerial victories required to officially qualify as an "ace" has varied, but is usually considered to be five or more. The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history. The concept of the "ace" emerged in 1915 during World War I , at the same time as aerial dogfighting . It was a propaganda term intended to provided the home front with a cult of the hero in what was otherwise a war of attrition . The individual actions of aces were widely reported and the image was disseminated of the ace as a chivalrous knight reminiscent of a bygone era. For a brief early period when air-to-air combat was just being invented, the exceptionally skilled pilot could shape the battle in the skies. For most of the war, however, the image of the ace had little to do with the reality of air warfare, in which fighters fought in formation and air superiority depended heavily on the relative availability of resources
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Weimar Republic
WEIMAR REPUBLIC (German : _Weimarer Republik_ (_ listen )) was an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar
Weimar
, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
_; it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the _Deutsches Reich_ was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing); and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
First World War
. The people of Germany
Germany
blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their wartime leaders for the country's defeat and for the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
. However, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, and organized the railway system
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French Algeria
FRENCH ALGERIA (French : _Alger_ to 1839, then _Algérie_ afterward; unofficially _Algérie française_, Arabic : الجزائر الفرنسية‎‎, _Al-Jaza'ir al-Fransiyah_) began in 1827 with the blockade of Algiers
Algiers
by the French navy and lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. From 1848 until independence, the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria
Algeria
was administered as an integral part of France
France
. The vast arid interior of Algeria, like the rest of French North Africa, was never considered part of France. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria
Algeria
became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, known as _colons_ and later, as _pieds-noirs _. However, indigenous Muslims
Muslims
remained a majority of the territory's population throughout its history. Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population with its lack of political and economic status fueled calls for greater political autonomy, and eventually independence, from France. Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events of what was later called the Algerian Warbegan
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Second World War
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany * Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations * Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Agence France-Presse
AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris
Paris
, France. Founded in 1944, AFP is the third largest news agency in the world, after the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters . Journalists of the French Resistance established the AFP in the headquarters of the former "Office Français d\'Information", a Vichy news agency, following the liberation of Paris
Paris
. Currently, the CEO is Emmanuel Hoog (fr) and the News Director is Michèle Léridon. AFP has regional offices in Nicosia
Nicosia
, Montevideo
Montevideo
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, and bureaux in 150 countries. AFP transmits news in French , English , Arabic , Portuguese , Spanish , and German . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Agence Havas * 1.2 Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
* 2 Statutes * 3 Copyright violation * 4 Investments * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYAGENCE HAVASThe _Agence Havas_ was founded in 1835 by a Parisian translator and advertising agent, Charles-Louis Havas as _Agence Havas _
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Le Figaro
LE FIGARO (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris
Paris
. The oldest national daily in France, Le Figaro
Le Figaro
is one of the two French newspapers of record , along with Le Monde , and is one of the most widely respected newspapers in the world. With its center-right editorial line, Le Figaro
Le Figaro
is the second-largest national newspaper in France after Le Parisien and before Le Monde , although some regional papers such as Ouest-France
Ouest-France
have larger circulations. In 2012, the paper had an average circulation of 330,952 copies per issue. The paper is published in the berliner format, switching from a broadsheet in 2009. The newspaper is owned by Le Figaro
Le Figaro
Group, whose publications include TV Magazine and Evene . The company's chairman is Serge Dassault , whose Dassault Group has controlled the paper since 2004
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France Soir
FRANCE SOIR (English: France Evening) was a French daily newspaper that prospered during the 1950s and 1960s, reaching a circulation of 1.5 million in the 1950s. It declined rapidly under various owners, and was re-launched as a populist tabloid in 2006. However, the last copy of France Soir was published on 13 December 2011, and the company went bankrupt on 23 July 2012. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Cartoon controversy * 1.2 Acquisition by Jean-Pierre Brunois and Olivier Rey * 1.3 Pugachyov ownership * 2 Notable contributors * 3 References HISTORY France Soir was founded as the underground paper Défense de la France ("Defense of France") by young resistance leaders, Robert Salmon and Philippe Viannay , in 1941. The first editions were printed on a Rotaprint 3 offset printing machine hidden in the cellars of the Sorbonne . Distributed to Grenoble, Clermont-Ferrand, Lyon and to Britain by the resistance networks Combat and Témoignage chrétien, Défense de la France became the largest circulation newspaper in the underground press, with 450,000 copies per day by January 1944. In March 1944, after multiple relocations, it was housed on three levels of an industrial building on rue Jean-Dolent, behind the La Santé Prison , in Paris's XIVth arrondissement
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Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française
RADIODIFFUSION-TéLéVISION FRANçAISE (RTF – French Radio and Television Broadcasting) was the French national public broadcasting organization established on 9 February 1949 to replace the post-war "Radiodiffusion Française" (RDF) , which had been founded on 23 March 1945 to replace Radiodiffusion Nationale (RN) , created on 29 July 1939. It was replaced in its turn, on 26 June 1964, by the notionally less-strictly government controlled Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF), which itself lasted until the end of 1974. RTF was both state-owned and state-controlled. With a budget set by the French National Assembly under the direction of the Ministry of Information , all of its spending and investment plans had to be directly agreed by the Minister of Information and the Minister of Finance . Alain Peyrefitte , Minister of Information, speaking in a debate in the National Assembly on 26 May 1964, described RTF as "the government in every Frenchman's dining-room" – La RTF, c'est le gouvernement dans la salle à manger de chaque Français. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Offices * 3 Channels * 3.1 Radio * 3.2 Television * 3.2.1 Regional television * 4 Directors * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYA public monopoly on broadcasting in France had been established with the formation of Radiodiffusion Française (RDF) in 1945
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Allied-occupied Germany
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
, the victorious Allied powers asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over ' Germany
Germany
as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
; having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
at the death of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(see 1945 Berlin
Berlin
Declaration ). The four powers divided ' Germany
Germany
as a whole' into four OCCUPATION ZONES for administrative purposes, creating what became collectively known as ALLIED-OCCUPIED GERMANY (German : _Alliierten-besetztes Deutschland_). This division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
(17 July to 2 August 1945). In autumn 1944 the United States, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had agreed on the zones by the London Protocol . The powers at Potsdam approved the detachment from ' Germany
Germany
as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder-Neisse line; with the exact line of the boundary to be determined at a final German Peace Treaty
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Korean War
Military stalemate * North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled * Subsequent UN-led invasion of North Korea repelled * Subsequent Chinese invasion of South Korea repelled * Korean Armistice Agreement * Korean conflict ongoing Territorial changes * Korean Demilitarized Zone established * Division of the Sovereign States of North Korea and South
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Algerian War
Military stalemate FLN political victory Évian Accords Algerian Independence End of the French Empire Collapse of the Fourth French Republic ; establishment of the Fifth Republic Territorial changes Independence of Algeria BELLIGERENTS FLN MNA PCA France
France
FAF (1960–61) OAS (1961–62) COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Saadi Yacef Mustapha Benboulaïd
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Prix Albert Londres
The ALBERT LONDRES PRIZE is the highest French journalism award, named in honor of journalist Albert Londres . Created in 1932, it was first awarded in 1933 and is considered the French equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize . However, unlike its American counterpart, it is only awarded to two laureates each year. The main prize goes to the year's "best reporter in the written press". Since 1985, a second prize has also been awarded to the "best audiovisual reporter". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Laureates * 2.1 Written word * 2.2 Audiovisual * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYOn the death of Albert Londres, on 16 May 1932, his daughter, Florise Martinet-London, decided to create an award in his memory. From 1933, the Albert Londres prize is awarded every year on May 16, to a young journalist under the age of forty. Florise Martinet-London died in 1975. The Albert Londres Prize is administered by the Association of Albert Londres Prize, comprising the various winners. Chaired for 21 years by Henri Amouroux, it is chaired since May 2006 by Josette Alia. The prize is awarded by a jury of 19 journalists and winners of the previous year. In 1985, under the influence of Henri de Turenne, also a director, a prize was created for the audiovisual documentary. Since then, the association has been administered by the Civil Society of Multimedia Authors (SCAM), a grouping of authors of documentaries
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