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Hejaz Railway
The HEJAZ (or HEDJAZ) RAILWAY (Turkish : Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow gauge railway (1,050 mm/​3 ft 5 11⁄32 in track gauge ) that ran from Damascus
Damascus
to Medina
Medina
, through the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of Saudi Arabia , with a branch line to Haifa
Haifa
on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and was built to extend the line from the Haydarpaşa Terminal in Kadikoy beyond Damascus
Damascus
to the holy city of Mecca
Mecca
. It got no further than Medina
Medina
, 400 kilometres (250 mi) short of Mecca, due to the interruption of the construction works caused by the outbreak of World War I
World War I

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Narrow Gauge Railway
A NARROW-GAUGE RAILWAY (or NARROW-GAUGE RAILROAD in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) of standard gauge railways. Most existing narrow-gauge railways are between 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Since narrow-gauge railways are usually built with smaller radius curves, smaller structure gauges , lighter rails, etc., they can be substantially less costly to build, equip, and operate than standard gauge or broad gauge railways, particularly in mountainous or difficult terrain. The lower costs of narrow-gauge railways mean they are often built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of building a standard or broad gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways also have specialized use in mines and other environments where a very small structure gauge makes a very small loading gauge necessary. Narrow-gauge railways also have more general applications
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
) was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles . Berlin
Berlin
became its capital with the Berlin
Berlin
Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
became the first Chancellor
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia
Anatolia
, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
, and on the east by the Levant
Levant
. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis , before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago
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Kadikoy
KADıKöY (Turkish pronunciation: ( listen ); in Byzantine Chalcedon
Chalcedon
, in Greek : Χαλκηδών), is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, facing the historic city centre on the European side of the Bosporus . Kadıköy
Kadıköy
is also the name of the most prominent neighbourhood of the district, a residential and commercial area that, with its numerous bars, cinemas and bookshops, is the cultural centre of the Anatolian side of Istanbul. Kadıköy became a district in 1928 when it was separated from Üsküdar district
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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Aqaba
AQABA (English: /ˈækəbə/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: العقبة‎‎) is the only coastal city in Jordan
Jordan
and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba . Situated in southernmost Jordan, Aqaba
Aqaba
is the administrative centre of the Aqaba Governorate . The city has a population of 188,160 and a land area of 375 square kilometres (144.8 sq mi). Today, Aqaba
Aqaba
plays a major role in the development of the Jordanian economy , through the vibrant trade and tourism sectors. The Port of Aqaba also serves other countries in the region. Aqaba's strategic location at the northeastern tip of the Red Sea between the continents of Asia and Africa, has made its port important over the course of thousands of years
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Bosra
BOSRA (Arabic : بصرى‎, translit. Buṣrā‎), also spelled BOSTRA, BUSRANA, BOZRAH, BOZRA and officially known BUSRA AL-SHAM (Arabic : بصرى الشام‎, translit. Buṣrā al-Shām‎, Turkish : Busra el-Şam) is a town in southern Syria
Syria
, administratively belonging to the Daraa District of the Daraa Governorate and geographically being part of the Hauran
Hauran
region. According to the Syria
Syria
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Bosra
Bosra
had a population of 19,683 in the 2004 census. It is the administrative center of the nahiyah ("subdistrict") of Bosra
Bosra
which consisted of nine localities with a collective population of 33,839 in 2004. Bosra's inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims , although the town has a small Shia Muslim
Shia Muslim
community
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Wadi
WADI (Arabic : وادي‎, translit. wādī‎, Hebrew : ואדי‎ vādī)" is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley . In some instances, it may refer to a dry (ephemeral ) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 General morphology and processes * 3 Sediments and sedimentary structures * 4 Hydrological action * 4.1 Deposits * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Bibliography * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY Oued Tissint, Morocco
Morocco
The term wādī is very widely found in Arabic toponyms
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Waqf
A WAQF (Arabic : وقف‎‎), also known as HABOUS or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law
Islamic law
, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim
Muslim
religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets. The donated assets may be held by a charitable trust . The person making such dedication is known as waqif, a donor. In Ottoman Turkish law, and later under the British Mandate of Palestine , the waqf was defined as usufruct State land (or property) of which the State revenues are assured to pious foundations. Although based on several hadiths and presenting elements similar to practices from pre-Islamic cultures, it seems that the specific full-fledged Islamic legal form of endowment called waqf dates from the 9th century CE (see paragraph "History and location")
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Mecca
MECCA (/ˈmɛkə/ ) or MAKKAH ( Arabic
Arabic
: مكة‎ Makkah ) is a city in the Tihamah plain in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region . The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina
Medina
. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the hajj ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim
Muslim
lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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Kfar Baruch
KFAR BARUKH (Hebrew : כְּפַר בָּרוּךְ‎, lit. Baruch Village) is a moshav in northern Israel
Israel
. Located near Afula , it falls under the jurisdiction of Jezreel Valley Regional Council . In 2016 it had a population of 546. HISTORYThe moshav was founded in 1926 by immigrants from the Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Caucasus
Caucasus
, Kurdistan and Romania
Romania
. It was named after Baruch Kahane, a Jewish philanthropist in Romania
Romania
who founded the village. REFERENCES * ^ A B "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017
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Midian
MIDIAN (/ˈmɪdiən/ ; Hebrew : מִדְיָן‬), MADYAN (Arabic : مَـدْيَـن‎), or MADIAM (Greek : Μαδιάμ) is a geographical place mentioned in the Torah
Torah
and Qur’an . William G. Dever states that biblical Midian
Midian
was in the "northwest Arabian Peninsula , on the east shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
on the Red Sea
Red Sea
", an area which he notes was "never extensively settled until the 8th-7th century B.C." According to the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
, the MIDIANITES were the descendants of Midian
Midian
, who was a son of Abraham
Abraham
and his wife Keturah : " Abraham
Abraham
took a wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah" (Genesis 25:1–2, King James Version )
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Nafud
AN NAFUD or AL-NEFUD or THE NEFUD ( Arabic
Arabic
,صحراء النفود, ṣahrā' al-nefud) is a desert in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula at 28°18′N 41°00′E / 28.30°N 41.00°E / 28.30; 41.00 , occupying a great oval depression. It is 290 kilometres (180 mi) long and 225 kilometres (140 mi) wide, with an area of 103,600 square kilometres (40,000 sq mi). The Nafud is an erg , a desert region located in the northern of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. Noted for its sudden violent winds, which account for the large crescent-shaped dunes. The sand in the Nafud is a brick-reddish color. Rain comes once or twice a year. In some lowland areas, namely those near the Hejaz
Hejaz
Mountains, there are oases where dates, vegetables, barley, and fruits are raised
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Hajj
The HAJJ (/hædʒ/ ; Arabic : حَجّ‎ Ḥaǧǧ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the five pillars of Islam
Islam
, alongside Shahadah , Salat , Zakat and Sawm
Sawm
. The Hajj
Hajj
is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj
Hajj
is called istita'ah, and a Muslim
Muslim
who fulfills this condition is called a mustati
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