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Hejaz Railway
The HEJAZ (or HEDJAZ) RAILWAY (Turkish : Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (1,050 mm/​3 ft 5 11⁄32 in track gauge ) that ran from Damascus
Damascus
to Medina
Medina
, through the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of Saudi Arabia , with a branch line to Haifa
Haifa
on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and the original goal was to extend the line from the Haydarpaşa Terminal
Haydarpaşa Terminal
in Kadikoy beyond Damascus
Damascus
to the holy city of Mecca
Mecca
. However, construction was interrupted due to the outbreak of World War I
World War I
, and it reached no further than Medina
Medina
, 400 kilometres (250 mi) short of Mecca. The completed Damascus
Damascus
to Medina section was 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
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Aqaba
AQABA (English: /ˈækəbə/ ; Arabic : العقبة‎‎) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba . Situated in southernmost Jordan, Aqaba is the administrative centre of the Aqaba Governorate . The city has a population of 188,160 and a land area of 375 square kilometres (144.8 sq mi). Today, Aqaba plays a major role in the development of the Jordanian economy , through the vibrant trade and tourism sectors. The Port of Aqaba also serves other countries in the region. Aqaba's strategic location at the northeastern tip of the Red Sea between the continents of Asia and Africa, has made its port important over the course of thousands of years. The ancient city was called Ayla , its strategic location and proximity to copper mines, made it a regional hub for copper production and trade in the Chalcolithic period
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Turkish Language
Turkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Bulgaria , Macedonia , Greece , Iraq ,
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Narrow-gauge Railway
A NARROW-GAUGE RAILWAY (or NARROW-GAUGE RAILROAD in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) of standard gauge railways. Most existing narrow-gauge railways are between 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Since narrow-gauge railways are usually built with smaller radius curves, smaller structure gauges , lighter rails, etc., they can be substantially less costly to build, equip, and operate than standard gauge or broad gauge railways, particularly in mountainous or difficult terrain. The lower costs of narrow-gauge railways mean they are often built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of building a standard or broad gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways also have specialized use in mines and other environments where a very small structure gauge makes a very small loading gauge necessary. Narrow-gauge railways also have more general applications
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : _Deutsches Kaiserreich_, officially _ Deutsches Reich _) was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic . The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families . This included four kingdoms , six grand duchies , five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities , three free Hanseatic cities , and one imperial territory . Although Prussia became one of several kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory, thus remaining a powerhouse with a major say in imperial affairs. Its influence also helped define modern German culture
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Waqf
A WAQF (Arabic : وقف‎‎), also known as HABOUS or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law
Islamic law
, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim
Muslim
religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets. The donated assets may be held by a charitable trust . The person making such dedication is known as waqif, a donor. In Ottoman Turkish law, and later under the British Mandate of Palestine , the waqf was defined as usufruct State land (or property) of which the State revenues are assured to pious foundations. Although based on several hadiths and presenting elements similar to practices from pre-Islamic cultures, it seems that the specific full-fledged Islamic legal form of endowment called waqf dates from the 9th century CE (see paragraph "History and location")
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Wadi
WADI (Arabic : وادي‎, translit. _wādī_‎, Hebrew : ואדי‎ _vādī_)" is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley . In some instances, it may refer to a dry (ephemeral ) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 General morphology and processes * 3 Sediments and sedimentary structures * 4 Hydrological action * 4.1 Deposits * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Bibliography * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY Oued Tissint, Morocco The term _wādī_ is very widely found in Arabic toponyms . Some Spanish toponyms are derived from Andalusian Arabic where _wādī_ was used to mean a permanent river, for example: Guadalcanal from _wādī al-Qanal_ = "river of refreshment stalls", Guadalajara from _wādī al-hidjārah_ = "river of stones", or Guadalquivir from _al-wādī al-kabīr_ = "the great river"
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Khirbet Al-Ghazaleh
KHIRBET GHAZALEH (Arabic : خربة غزالة‎‎ also spelled KHIRBET GHAZALAH) is a town in the Daraa Governorate , roughly 17 kilometers northeast of Daraa adjacent to Da\'el in the west and near Izra\' to the north. It is situated on the main highway between Damascus
Damascus
and Amman
Amman
. In the 2004 census by the Central Bureau of Statistics Khirbet Ghazaleh had a population of 16,240. Its inhabitants are predominantly Muslims . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 2011 Syrian uprising * 2 References * 3 Bibliography * 4 External links HISTORYIn 1596 it appeared in the Ottoman tax registers under the name of Kutaybit Tamir, being part of the nahiya of Bani Malik al-Asraf, in the Qada of Hauran . It had an entirely Muslim
Muslim
population consisting of 29 households and 12 bachelors
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Nafud
AN NAFUD or AL-NEFUD or THE NEFUD ( Arabic
Arabic
,صحراء النفود, ṣahrā' al-nefud) is a desert in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula at 28°18′N 41°00′E / 28.30°N 41.00°E / 28.30; 41.00 , occupying a great oval depression. It is 290 kilometres (180 mi) long and 225 kilometres (140 mi) wide, with an area of 103,600 square kilometres (40,000 sq mi). The Nafud is an erg , is a desert region located in the northern of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. Noted for its sudden violent winds, which account for the large crescent-shaped dunes. The sand in the Nafud is a brick reddish color. Rain comes once or twice a year. In some lowland areas, namely those near the Hejaz
Hejaz
Mountains, there are oases where dates, vegetables, barley, and fruits are raised
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Bosra
BOSRA (Arabic : بصرى‎, translit. Buṣrā), also spelled BOSTRA, BUSRANA, BOZRAH, BOZRA and officially known BUSRA AL-SHAM (Arabic : بصرى الشام‎, translit. Buṣrā al-Shām, Turkish : Busra el-Şam) is a town in southern Syria
Syria
, administratively belonging to the Daraa District of the Daraa Governorate and geographically being part of the Hauran region. According to the Syria
Syria
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Bosra
Bosra
had a population of 19,683 in the 2004 census. It is the administrative center of the nahiyah ("subdistrict") of Bosra
Bosra
which consisted of nine localities with a collective population of 33,839 in 2004. Bosra's inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims , although the town has a small Shia Muslim community
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean , surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa , and on the east by the Levant . Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin _mediterraneus_, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land" (from _medius_, "middle" and _terra_, "land")
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Kadikoy
KADıKöY (Turkish pronunciation: ( listen ); in Byzantine Chalcedon , in Greek : Χαλκηδών), is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, facing the historic city centre on the European side of the Bosporus . Kadıköy
Kadıköy
is also the name of the most prominent neighbourhood of the district, a residential and commercial area that, with its numerous bars, cinemas and bookshops, is the cultural centre of the Anatolian side of Istanbul. Kadıköy became a district in 1928 when it was separated from Üsküdar district. The neighbourhoods of İçerenköy , Bostancı and Suadiye were also separated from the district of Kartal
Kartal
in the same year, and eventually joined the newly formed district of Kadıköy
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE)
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Hajj
The HAJJ (/hædʒ/ ; Arabic : حَجّ‎‎ _Ḥaǧǧ_ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca , the most holy city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the five pillars of Islam , alongside Shahadah , Salat , Zakat , and Sawm . The Hajj is the largest annual gathering of people in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called _istita'ah_, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a _mustati_
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Kfar Baruch
KFAR BARUKH (Hebrew : כְּפַר בָּרוּךְ‎, lit. Baruch Village) is a moshav in northern Israel
Israel
. Located near Afula , it falls under the jurisdiction of Jezreel Valley Regional Council . In 2016 it had a population of 546. HISTORYThe moshav was founded in 1926 by immigrants from the Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Caucasus
Caucasus
, Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Romania
Romania
. It was named after Baruch Kahane, a Jewish philanthropist in Romania
Romania
who founded the village. REFERENCES * ^ A B "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017
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