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Heinrich Hertz
HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ (German: ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory of light . The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the "hertz " in his honor. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Death * 2 Scientific work * 2.1 Meteorology * 2.2 Contact mechanics * 2.3 Electromagnetic waves * 2.4 Cathode rays * 3 Nazi persecution * 4 Legacy and honors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYHeinrich Rudolf Hertz was born in 1857 in Hamburg , then a sovereign state of the German Confederation , into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family. His father Gustav Ferdinand Hertz (originally named David Gustav Hertz) (1827–1914) was a barrister and later a senator . His mother was Anna Elisabeth Pfefferkorn. Hertz's father converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1834. His mother's family was a Lutheran pastor's family. While studying at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums in Hamburg, Hertz showed an aptitude for sciences as well as languages, learning Arabic and Sanskrit
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Hamburg
HAMBURG (German pronunciation: (_ listen ), local pronunciation ( listen ); Low German /Low Saxon : Hamborg_ — (_ listen )), officially the FREE AND HANSEATIC CITY OF HAMBURG (German : Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg_) is the second largest city and a state of Germany , with a population of over 1.7 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg\'s history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League , a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire , a city-state , and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany , it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten . Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg , the floods , and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids , the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe , Hamburg is a major port and a global service, media, logistics and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus , Blohm + Voss , Aurubis , Beiersdorf , and Unilever . The radio and television broadcaster NDR , Gruner + Jahr (Europe's largest printing and publishing firm), Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are also based in Hamburg
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German Confederation
The GERMAN CONFEDERATION (German : _Deutscher Bund_) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe
Central Europe
, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire . Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. It collapsed due to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria
Austria
, warfare, the 1848 revolution , and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state . Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the Confederation
Confederation
briefly dissolved, but was re-established shortly after, in 1850. It decidedly fell apart only after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks\' War of 1866. The dispute between the two dominant member states of the Confederation, Austria
Austria
and Prussia , over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia after the Seven Weeks\' War of 1866. This led to the creation of the North German Confederation
Confederation
under Prussian leadership in 1867
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Bonn
The Federal City of BONN (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia , with a population of 311,287. About 24 km (15 mi) south-southeast of Cologne , Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants. Together with the capital Berlin , the city is the _de facto_ joint seat of government of Germany, with the President , the Chancellor , and many federal government ministries maintaining substantial presences in Bonn. The title of Federal City (German : _Bundesstadt_) reflects its important political status within Germany. Founded in the 1st century BC as a Roman settlement , Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne , and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne . Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn in 1770. From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was officially designated the "provisional capital " of West Germany , and Germany's present constitution, the Basic Law , was declared in the city in 1949. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government – but no longer capital – of reunited Germany
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : _Deutsches Kaiserreich_, officially _ Deutsches Reich _) was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic . The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families . This included four kingdoms , six grand duchies , five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities , three free Hanseatic cities , and one imperial territory . Although Prussia became one of several kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory, thus remaining a powerhouse with a major say in imperial affairs. Its influence also helped define modern German culture . After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized , with particular strengths in coal , iron (and later steel ), chemicals, and railways . In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country
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Physics
PHYSICS (from Ancient Greek : φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) _phusikḗ (epistḗmē)_ "knowledge of nature", from φύσις _phúsis_ "nature" ) is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time , along with related concepts such as energy and force . One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines , perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy . Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry , biology , and certain branches of mathematics , but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry , and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined . New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy . Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs
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Electronic Engineering
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, or ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices , especially transistors , diodes and integrated circuits ) to design electronic circuits , devices , microprocessors , microcontrollers and other systems . The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards . Electronics is a subfield within the wider electrical engineering academic subject but denotes a broad engineering field that covers subfields such as analog electronics , digital electronics , consumer electronics , embedded systems and power electronics . Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics , radio engineering , telecommunications , control systems , signal processing , systems engineering , computer engineering , instrumentation engineering , electric power control , robotics , and many others. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is one of the most important and influential organizations for electronics engineers
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University Of Kiel
The UNIVERSITY OF KIEL (German : Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel
Kiel
, Germany
Germany
. It was founded in 1665 as the Academia Holsatorum Chiloniensis by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and has approximately 26,000 students today. The University
University
of Kiel
Kiel
is the largest, oldest, and most prestigious in the state of Schleswig-Holstein . Until 1864/66 it was not only the northernmost university in Germany
Germany
but at the same time the 2nd largest university of Denmark
Denmark
. Faculty, alumni, and researchers of the University
University
of Kiel
Kiel
have won 12 Nobel Prizes . The University
University
of Kiel
Kiel
is a member of the German Universities Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean , which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Kiel
in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence "Inflammation at Interfaces" deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The world-renowned Kiel
Kiel
Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with the University
University
of Kiel
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University Of Karlsruhe
The UNIVERSITY OF KARLSRUHE, also known as FRIDERICIANA, was founded in 1825. It recently merged with Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
to form the new institution, KARLSRUHE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (KIT). It is located in the city of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
, Germany
Germany
, and is one of the most prestigious technical universities in Germany
Germany
- it is recognized as one of the leading research universities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Admission and education * 3 Interdisciplinary education and research * 4 Reputation * 5 Computer facilities * 6 Libraries * 7 Faculties * 8 Famous people and discoveries * 8.1 Famous students * 9 Presidents * 10 Points of interest * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORYThe University of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
was founded as Polytechnische Schule, a polytechnical school, on October 7 , 1825 . It was modeled upon the École polytechnique
École polytechnique
in Paris
Paris
. In 1865, Grand Duke Frederick I of Baden (German: Friedrich) raised the school to the status of a Hochschule
Hochschule
, a high educational institute. Since 1902 the university also has been known as the Fridericiana in his honour
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University Of Bonn
The UNIVERSITY OF BONN (German : _Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn_) is a public research university located in Bonn , Germany . It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III , as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn (English: Academy of the Prince-elector of Cologne) which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes. Among its notable alumni and faculty are seven Nobel Laureates , three Fields Medalist , twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners, Prince Albert , Pope Benedict XVI , Frederick III , Karl Marx , Heinrich Heine , Friedrich Nietzsche , Konrad Adenauer , and Joseph Schumpeter . The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2016 and the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 ranked the University of Bonn as one of the 100 best universities in the world
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin : _alma_ "nourishing/kind", _mater_ "mother"; pl. _almae matres_) is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, _Alma mater_ was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary . It entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto "_Alma Mater Studiorum_" ("nurturing mother of studies"), which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world . It is related to _alumnus _, a term used for a university graduate that literally means a "nursling" or "one who is nourished"
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University Of Munich
LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (also referred to as LMU or the UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich
Munich
, Germany . The University of Munich
Munich
is Germany\'s sixth-oldest university in continuous operation . Originally established in Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria- Landshut
Landshut
, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut
Landshut
by King Maximilian I of Bavaria
Bavaria
when Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich
Munich
in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria
Bavaria
. In 1802, the university was officially named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria
Bavaria
in his as well as the university's original founder's honour
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University Of Berlin
The HUMBOLDT UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN (German : _Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin_, abbreviated HU BERLIN) is one of Berlin 's oldest universities , founded on 15 October 1811 as the UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN (_Berliner Universität_) by Frederick William III of Prussia , on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt . The Humboldt university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities. From 1828 to 1945 it was known as the FREDERICK WILLIAM UNIVERSITY (_Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität_) and also (unofficially) as the _Universität unter den Linden_ after its location in the former palace of Prince Henry of Prussia which his brother, King Frederick II , had built for him between 1748 and 1753 on the avenue Unter den Linden . In 1949 (no personal name in the meantime), it was named _Humboldt-Universität_ in honour of both its organiser Wilhelm and his brother, geographer Alexander von Humboldt . In 2012, the Humboldt University of Berlin was one of eleven German universities to win in the German Universities Excellence Initiative , a national competition for universities organized by the German Federal Government
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Doctoral Advisor
A DOCTORAL ADVISOR (also DISSERTATION DIRECTOR or DISSERTATION ADVISOR) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate , helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation . Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student. For instance, in the Dutch academic system , only full professors (_hoogleraren_) may chair doctoral examinations, so students who have been advised by lower-ranked faculty members will have a full professor as their official advisor (or _promotor_) and their actual advisor as _co-promotor_. In other countries, such as Spain, the doctoral advisor has the role of a mentor, but is not allowed to form part of the examination committee. This is a body of 5 experts independently selected by the rectorate among 10 candidates proposed by the university's department
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Hermann Von Helmholtz
HERMANN LUDWIG FERDINAND VON HELMHOLTZ (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields. The largest German association of research institutions , the Helmholtz Association , is named after him. In physiology and psychology , he is known for his mathematics of the eye , theories of vision , ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism . In physics , he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy , work in electrodynamics , chemical thermodynamics , and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics . As a philosopher , he is known for his philosophy of science , ideas on the relation between the laws of perception and the laws of nature , the science of aesthetics , and ideas on the civilizing power of science