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Hegemony
HEGEMONY (UK : /hɪˈɡɛməni/ or /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or US : /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or pronunciation (help ·info ) or /ˈhɛdʒɪˌmoʊni/ or Greek : ἡγεμονία, hēgemonía), "leadership, rule" is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Demarchy
In governance , SORTITION (also known as ALLOTMENT or DEMARCHY) selects political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates. The logic behind the sortition process originates from the idea that “power corrupts.” For that reason, when the time came to choose individuals to be assigned to empowering positions, the ancient Athenians resorted to choosing by lot. In ancient Athenian democracy , SORTITION was therefore the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials, and its use was regarded as a principal characteristic of true democracy . Today, sortition is commonly used to select prospective jurors in common law -based legal systems and is sometimes used in forming citizen groups with political advisory power (citizens\' juries or citizens\' assemblies )
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Social Democracy
SOCIAL DEMOCRACY is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal-democratic polity and capitalist economy, as well as a policy regime involving a commitment to representative and participatory democracy , measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy
Social democracy
thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes; and is often associated with the set of socioeconomic policies that became prominent in Northern and Western Europe—particularly the Nordic model
Nordic model
in the Nordic countries —during the latter half of the 20th century
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Republicanism
REPUBLICANISM is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty . Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies . This article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word "republic" derives from the Latin res publica which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BC following the expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus . This form of government collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics revived subsequently, with, for example, Renaissance Florence
Florence
or early modern Britain . The concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution
American Revolution

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French And Raven's Bases Of Power
In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven in 1959, power is divided into five separate and distinct forms. In 1965 Raven revised this model to include a sixth form by separating the informational power base as distinct from the expert power base. Relating to social communication studies, power in social influence settings has introduced a large realm of research pertaining to persuasion tactics and leadership practices. Through social communication studies, it has been theorized that leadership and power are closely linked. It has been further presumed that different forms of power affect one's leadership and success. This idea is used often in organizational communication and throughout the workforce. In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven in 1959, power is divided into five separate and distinct forms
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Federalism
FEDERALISM is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States of America under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism , in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level
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Liberal Democracy
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism . It is also called western democracy . It is characterized by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties , a separation of powers into different branches of government , the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society , and the equal protection of human rights , civil rights , civil liberties , and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution , either formally written or uncodified , to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract . After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world
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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Chiefdoms in Archaeological Theory * 1.2 Simple * 1.3 Complex * 2 Chiefdoms on the Indian subcontinent * 3 Native Chieftain System in southern China * 4 Alternatives to chiefdoms * 5 See also * 6 Bibliography * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEWIn anthropological theory , one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society , and less complex than a state or a civilization
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Semi-presidential
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958)
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Meritocracy
MERITOCRACY (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy holding that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented
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Despotism
DESPOTISM is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy , but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic. Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government. In this sense, it is similar to the pejorative connotations that are associated with the terms tyrant and Dictator
Dictator

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Dictatorship
DICTATORSHIP is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person (a dictator ) or by a polity , and power is exercized through various mechanisms in order to ensure that the entity's power remains strong. A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism , in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda in order to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators in order to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the west . In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government
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Particracy
PARTICRACY (also 'partitocracy', 'partocracy', or 'partitocrazia') is a de facto form of government where one or more political parties dominate the political process, rather than citizens and/or individual politicians . As argued by Italian political scientist Mauro Calise in 1994, the term is often derogatory, implying that parties have too much power—in a similar vein, in premodern times it was often argued that democracy was merely rule by the demos, or a poorly educated and easily misled mob. Efforts to turn "particracy" into a more precise scholarly concept so far merely appear partly successful
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Noocracy
NOOCRACY (/noʊˈɒkrəsi/ or /ˈnoʊ.əkrəsi/ ), or "aristocracy of the wise", as defined by Plato
Plato
, is a social and political system that is "based on the priority of human mind", according to Vladimir Vernadsky . It was also further developed in the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Development * 3 Publications * 4 Criticisms * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe word itself is derived from Greek NOUS , Gen. NOOS (νους) meaning "mind " or "intellect ", and "kratos" (κράτος), "authority " or "power ". DEVELOPMENTOne of the first attempts to implement such a political system was perhaps Pythagoras
Pythagoras
' "city of the wise" that he planned to build in Italy together with his followers, the order of "mathematikoi ". In modern history, similar concepts were introduced by Vladimir Vernadsky , who did not use this term, but the term "noosphere "
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Kritarchy
KRITARCHY is a system of rule by judges (Hebrew : שופטים‎, shoftim) in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges
Book of Judges
, following Joshua
Joshua
's conquest of Canaan
Canaan
and prior to the united monarchy under Saul
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