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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Temple Scroll
The TEMPLE SCROLL (Hebrew : מגילת המקדש‎‎) is one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
. Among the discoveries at Qumran it is designated: 11QTemple Scrolla(11Q19). It describes a Jewish temple which has never been built along with extensive detailed regulations about sacrifices and temple practices. The document is written in the form of a revelation from God to Moses, thereby with the intended meaning that this is the more appropriate temple which was revealed to Moses, and that Moses' instructions were either forgotten or ignored when Solomon built the First Temple . In other words, in the mind of the Scroll writer, "Solomon should actually have built the First Temple as it is described here in the Temple Scroll". CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 An idealized temple * 3 The theme of purity (holiness) in the Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
* 3.1 Purity before 200 BCE * 3.2 Purity in the Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
* 4 Festivals in the Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
* 5 Sacrificial regulations and practices * 6 References * 7 External links INTRODUCTIONThe Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
is written in Hebrew in the square Herodian script of the late Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, and comprises 65 columns (19 pieces of leather) and is 9 metres in length
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Dead Sea Scrolls
The term DEAD SEA SCROLLS can refer to the following: * in the narrow sense, to the QUMRAN CAVES SCROLLS – manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
near the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* more broadly, to manuscripts from a larger number of sites from the entire Judean Desert
Judean Desert
, none very far from the Dead Sea. This category includes manuscript fragments from a wider range of historical periods. Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority only holding small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived — fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran
Qumran
Caves. Researchers have assembled a collection of some 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves. The 11 Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran
Khirbet Qumran
in the eastern Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
, in modern Israel
Israel
. The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
, whence they derive their name
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Qumran
QUMRAN (Hebrew : קומראן‎; Arabic : خربة قمران‎‎ Khirbet Qumran) is an archaeological site in the West Bank
West Bank
managed by Israel
Israel
's Qumran
Qumran
National Park. It is located on a dry plateau about 1.5 km (1 mi) from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
, near the Israeli settlement and kibbutz of Kalya . The Hellenistic period settlement was constructed during the reign of John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
, 134–104 BCE or somewhat later, and was occupied most of the time until it was destroyed by the Romans in 68 CE or shortly after. It is best known as the settlement nearest to the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
where the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls were hidden, caves in the sheer desert cliffs and beneath, in the marl terrace. The principal excavations at Qumran
Qumran
were conducted by Roland de Vaux in the 1950s, though several later unearthings at the site have since been carried out
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Land Of Israel
The LAND OF ISRAEL (Hebrew : אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern _Eretz Yisrael_, Tiberian _ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl_) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant . Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan , the Promised Land , the Holy Land , and Palestine (see also Israel (other) ). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible , with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba , and three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt” (1 Kings 8:65, 1 Chronicles 13:5 and 2 Chronicles 7:8).". These biblical limits for the land differ from the borders of established historical Israelite and later Jewish kingdoms; over time these have included the United Kingdom of Israel , the two separated kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah , the Hasmonean Kingdom , and the Herodian Kingdom , which at their heights ruled lands with similar but not identical boundaries
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Israelites
The ISRAELITES (/ˈɪzriəˌlaɪtsˌ/ ; Hebrew : בני ישראל‎‎ _Bnei Yisra'el_) were a Semitic-speaking people of the ancient Near East , who inhabited a part of Canaan
Canaan
during the tribal and monarchic periods . The ancient Israelites
Israelites
are considered to be an outgrowth of the indigenous Canaanite populations that long inhabited the Southern Levant , Syria
Syria
, ancient Israel
Israel
and the Transjordan . In the Hebrew Bible , the term _Israelites_ refers to the direct descendants of any of the sons of the patriarch Jacob
Jacob
, or to the descendants of the people who are called Israel, and to a worshiper of the God
God
of Israel, Yahweh
Yahweh
. In the period of the divided monarchy it was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern kingdom, and it is only extended to cover the people of the southern kingdom in post-exilic usage. The Israelites
Israelites
were also known as the _ Hebrews
Hebrews
_ and the _ Twelve Tribes of Israel _. The Jews
Jews
are named after and also descended from the southern Israelite Kingdom of Judah , particularly the tribes of Judah , Benjamin
Benjamin
and partially Levi
Levi

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Jews
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 _Yhudim_, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East . Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel . The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age). The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel , and the Kingdom of Judah . Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'
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Samaritans
The SAMARITANS ( Samaritan Hebrew : ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ, translit. Shamerim (שַמֶרִים), meaning "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)", Hebrew : שומרונים‎, translit. Shomronim‎, Arabic
Arabic
: السامريون‎, translit. al-Sāmiriyyūn‎) are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant
Levant
originating from the Israelites
Israelites
(or Hebrews ) of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
. Ancestrally, Samaritans
Samaritans
claim descent from the tribe of Ephraim and tribe of Manasseh (two sons of Joseph ) as well as from the Levites , who have links to ancient Samaria
Samaria
(now constituting the majority of the territory known as the West Bank) from the period of their entry into Canaan
Canaan
, while some suggest that it was from the beginning of the Babylonian captivity up to the Samaritan polity under the rule of Baba Rabba . Samaritans
Samaritans
used to include descendants who ascribed to the Benjamin tribe, but this line became extinct in the 1960s. According to Samaritan tradition, the split between them and the Judean-led Southern Israelites
Israelites
began during the time of the priest Eli when the Southern Israelites
Israelites
split off from the central Israelite tradition, as they perceive it
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Extinct Language
An EXTINCT LANGUAGE is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if it has no living descendants . In contrast, a _dead language_ is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin
Latin
. In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift , and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign _lingua franca _. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language . As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide. Most of these are minor languages in danger of extinction; one estimate published in 2004 expected that some 90% of the currently spoken languages will have become extinct by 2050. CONTENTS * 1 Language death * 2 Language
Language
revival * 3 Recently extinct languages * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links LANGUAGE DEATH Main article: Language death Sisters Maxine Wildcat Barnett (left) and Josephine Wildcat Bigler; two of the final surviving elderly speakers of Yuchi , visiting their grandmother’s grave in a cemetery behind Pickett Chapel in Sapulpa, Oklahoma. According to the sisters, their grandmother had insisted that Yuchi be their native language
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Ancient Hebrew
ANCIENT HEBREW ( ISO 639-3 code hbo) is a blanket term for varieties of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
used in ancient times. It can be divided into: * Paleo-Hebrew (such as the Siloam inscription ) * Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
(including the use of Tiberian vocalization
Tiberian vocalization
) * Mishnaic Hebrew
Mishnaic Hebrew
See also: Ancient Hebrew writings . This Semitic languages
Semitic languages
-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Hebrew_language additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Liturgical Language
A SACRED LANGUAGE, "HOLY LANGUAGE" (in religious context) or LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 Christianity
Christianity
* 4 Hinduism
Hinduism
* 5 Islam
Islam
* 6 Judaism * 6.1 Donmeh
Donmeh
* 7 Lingayatism * 8 List of sacred languages * 9 References CONCEPT This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )A sacred language is often the language which was spoken and written in the society in which a religion's sacred texts were first set down; however, thereafter these texts, becoming fixed and holy, remain frozen and immune to later linguistic developments. Once a language becomes associated with religious worship, its believers may ascribe virtues to the language of worship that they would not give to their native tongues. In the case of sacred texts, there is a fear of losing authenticity and accuracy by a translation or re-translation, and difficulties in achieving acceptance for a new version of a text
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world . Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism , which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah
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Language Revitalization
LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION, also referred to as LANGUAGE REVIVAL or REVERSING LANGUAGE SHIFT, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or community groups, or governments. Some argue for a distinction between LANGUAGE REVIVAL (the resurrection of a dead language with no existing native speakers) and LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION (the rescue of a "dying" language). It has been pointed out that there has only been one successful instance of a complete language revival, that of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
, creating a new generation of native speakers without any pre-existing native speakers as a model. Languages targeted for language revitalization include those whose use and prominence is severely limited . Sometimes various tactics of language revitalization can even be used to try to revive extinct languages . Though the goals of language revitalization vary greatly from case to case, they typically involve attempting to expand the number of speakers and use of a language, or trying to maintain the current level of use to protect the language from extinction or language death . Reasons for revitalization vary
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Modern Hebrew
MODERN HEBREW or ISRAELI HEBREW (Hebrew : עברית חדשה‎, _ʿivrít ḥadašá_, – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as HEBREW (עברית‎ _Ivrit_), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew , a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is one of the two official languages of Israel, along with Arabic
Arabic
. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent, and non-fluent speakers. Most speakers are citizens of Israel
Israel
: about five million are Israelis who speak Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
as their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5 million are Arab citizens of Israel
Israel
, whose first language is usually Arabic, and half a million are expatriate Israelis or diaspora Jews living outside Israel
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