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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Temple Scroll
The TEMPLE SCROLL (Hebrew : מגילת המקדש‎‎) is one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
. Among the discoveries at Qumran it is designated: 11QTemple Scrolla(11Q19). It describes a Jewish temple which has never been built along with extensive detailed regulations about sacrifices and temple practices. The document is written in the form of a revelation from God to Moses, thereby with the intended meaning that this is the more appropriate temple which was revealed to Moses, and that Moses' instructions were either forgotten or ignored when Solomon built the First Temple . In other words, in the mind of the Scroll writer, "Solomon should actually have built the First Temple as it is described here in the Temple Scroll"
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Dead Sea Scrolls
The term DEAD SEA SCROLLS can refer to the following: * in the narrow sense, to the QUMRAN CAVES SCROLLS – manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
near the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* more broadly, to manuscripts from a larger number of sites from the entire Judean Desert
Judean Desert
, none very far from the Dead Sea. This category includes manuscript fragments from a wider range of historical periods. Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority only holding small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived — fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran
Qumran
Caves
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Qumran
QUMRAN (Hebrew : קומראן‎; Arabic : خربة قمران‎‎ _Khirbet Qumran_) is an archaeological site in the West Bank
West Bank
managed by Israel
Israel
's Qumran
Qumran
National Park. It is located on a dry plateau about 1.5 km (1 mi) from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea , near the Israeli settlement and kibbutz of Kalya . The Hellenistic period settlement was constructed during the reign of John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
, 134–104 BCE or somewhat later, and was occupied most of the time until it was destroyed by the Romans in 68 CE or shortly after. It is best known as the settlement nearest to the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
where the Dead Sea Scrolls were hidden, caves in the sheer desert cliffs and beneath, in the marl terrace
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6%
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Land Of Israel
The LAND OF ISRAEL (Hebrew : אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern _Eretz Yisrael_, Tiberian _ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl_) is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant . Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan , the Promised Land , the Holy Land , and Palestine (see also Israel (other) ). The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible , with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba , and three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt” (1 Kings 8:65, 1 Chronicles 13:5 and 2 Chronicles 7:8)."
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Israelites
The ISRAELITES (/ˈɪzriəˌlaɪtsˌ/ ; Hebrew : בני ישראל‎‎ _Bnei Yisra'el_) were a Semitic-speaking people of the ancient Near East , who inhabited a part of Canaan
Canaan
during the tribal and monarchic periods . The ancient Israelites
Israelites
are considered to be an outgrowth of the indigenous Canaanite populations that long inhabited the Southern Levant , Syria
Syria
, ancient Israel
Israel
and the Transjordan . In the Hebrew Bible , the term _Israelites_ refers to the direct descendants of any of the sons of the patriarch Jacob
Jacob
, or to the descendants of the people who are called Israel, and to a worshiper of the God
God
of Israel, Yahweh
Yahweh

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Jews
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 _Yhudim_, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East . Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel . The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age)
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Samaritans
The SAMARITANS ( Samaritan Hebrew : ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ, translit. _Shamerim_ (שַמֶרִים), meaning "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)", Hebrew : שומרונים‎, translit. _Shomronim_‎, Arabic
Arabic
: السامريون‎, translit. _al-Sāmiriyyūn_‎) are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant
Levant
originating from the Israelites
Israelites
(or Hebrews
Hebrews
) of the Ancient Near East
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Extinct Language
An EXTINCT LANGUAGE is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if it has no living descendants . In contrast, a _dead language_ is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin
Latin
. In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift , and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign _lingua franca _. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language . As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide. Most of these are minor languages in danger of extinction; one estimate published in 2004 expected that some 90% of the currently spoken languages will have become extinct by 2050
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Ancient Hebrew
ANCIENT HEBREW ( ISO 639-3 code hbo) is a blanket term for varieties of the Hebrew language used in ancient times. It can be divided into: * Paleo-Hebrew (such as the Siloam inscription ) * Biblical Hebrew (including the use of Tiberian vocalization ) * Mishnaic Hebrew See also: Ancient Hebrew writings . This Semitic languages
Semitic languages
-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Hebrew_language additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Liturgical Language
A SACRED LANGUAGE, "HOLY LANGUAGE" (in religious context) or LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Buddhism * 3 Christianity * 4 Hinduism * 5 Islam * 6 Judaism * 6.1 Donmeh * 7 Lingayatism * 8 List of sacred languages * 9 References CONCEPT This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world
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Language Revitalization
LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION, also referred to as LANGUAGE REVIVAL or REVERSING LANGUAGE SHIFT, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or community groups, or governments. Some argue for a distinction between LANGUAGE REVIVAL (the resurrection of a dead language with no existing native speakers) and LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION (the rescue of a "dying" language). It has been pointed out that there has only been one successful instance of a complete language revival, that of the Hebrew language , creating a new generation of native speakers without any pre-existing native speakers as a model. Languages targeted for language revitalization include those whose use and prominence is severely limited . Sometimes various tactics of language revitalization can even be used to try to revive extinct languages
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Modern Hebrew
MODERN HEBREW or ISRAELI HEBREW (Hebrew : עברית חדשה‎, _ʿivrít ḥadašá_, – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as HEBREW (עברית‎ _Ivrit_), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew , a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is one of the two official languages of Israel, along with Arabic
Arabic
. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent, and non-fluent speakers
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