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Heat Transfer
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system. Heat conduction, also called diffusion, is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature, at which point they are in thermal equilibrium [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Mantle (geology)
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies. For a mantle to form, the planetary body must be large enough to have undergone the process of planetary differentiation by density. The mantle is bounded on the bottom by the planetary core and on top by the crust [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Photons
A photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Momentum
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It can be more generally stated as a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object. It is a threedimensional vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction. If m is an object's mass and v is the velocity (also a vector), then the momentum is [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Motion (physics)
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time. Motion is described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time, and speed. Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame. If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (timeinvariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described. Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring the motion of an object [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Fick's Laws Of Diffusion
Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855. They can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient, D [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Newtonian Fluid
In continuum mechanics, a Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are linearly proportional to the local strain rate—the rate of change of its deformation over time. That is equivalent to saying those forces are proportional to the rates of change of the fluid's velocity vector as one moves away from the point in question in various directions. More precisely, a fluid is Newtonian only if the tensors that describe the viscous stress and the strain rate are related by a constant viscosity tensor that does not depend on the stress state and velocity of the flow [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Heat Flux
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time. In SI its units are watts per square metre (W⋅m−2>). It has both a direction and a magnitude, and so it is a vector quantity. To define the heat flux at a certain point in space, one takes the limiting case where the size of the surface becomes infinitesimally small. Heat flux is often denoted , the subscript q specifying heat flux, as opposed to mass or momentum flux [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Proportionality (mathematics)
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them. The constant is called the coefficient of proportionality or proportionality constant. To express the statement "y is directly proportional to x" mathematically, we write an equation y = cx, where c is the proportionality constant. Symbolically, this is written as y ∝ x. To express the statement "y is inversely proportional to x" mathematically, we write an equation y = c/x [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Thermodynamic State
For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables. Once such a set of values of thermodynamic variables has been specified for a system, the values of all thermodynamic properties of the system are uniquely determined. Usually, by default, a thermodynamic state is taken to be one of thermodynamic equilibrium. This means that the state is not merely the condition of the system at a specific time, but that the condition is the same, unchanging, over an indefinitely long duration of time. Thermodynamics sets up an idealized formalism that can be summarized by a system of postulates of thermodynamics [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Thermodynamic Process
Classical thermodynamics considers three main kinds of thermodynamic process: change in a system, cycles in a system, and flow processes. Defined by change in a system, a thermodynamic process is a passage of a thermodynamic system from an initial to a final state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The initial and final states are the defining elements of the process. The actual course of the process is not the primary concern, and thus often is ignored. This is the customary default meaning of the term 'thermodynamic process'. In general, during the actual course of a thermodynamic process, the system passes through physical states which are not describable as thermodynamic states, because they are far from internal thermodynamic equilibrium. Such processes are useful for thermodynamic theory. Defined by a cycle of transfers into and out of a system, a cyclic process is described by the quantities transferred in the several stages of the cycle, which recur unchangingly [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Functions Of State
In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system. State functions do not depend on the path by which the system arrived at its present state. A state function describes the equilibrium state of a system. For example, internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy are state quantities because they describe quantitatively an equilibrium state of a thermodynamic system, irrespective of how the system arrived in that state. In contrast, mechanical work and heat are process quantities or path functions, because their values depend on the specific transition (or path) between two equilibrium states [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Pressure
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre; similarly, the poundforce per square inch (psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as 1>⁄_{760} of this [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Thermodynamic Free Energy
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform. The concept is useful in the thermodynamics of chemical or thermal processes in engineering and science. The free energy is the internal energy of a system minus the amount of energy that cannot be used to perform work. This unusable energy is given by the entropy of a system multiplied by the temperature of the system. Like the internal energy, the free energy is a thermodynamic state function [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 