HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Heat Of Combustion
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it. The calorific value is the total energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon or other organic molecule reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water and release heat. It may be expressed with the quantities:energy/mole of fuel energy/mass of fuel energy/volume of the fuelThe calorific value is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation ΔHo f of the products and reactants (though this approach is purely empirical since most heats of formation are calculated from measured heats of combustion)
[...More...]

"Heat Of Combustion" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chemical Substance
A chemical substance[1], also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[2] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.[3] Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose)
[...More...]

"Chemical Substance" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Natural Gas
Natural gas
Natural gas
is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.[2] It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.[3] Natural gas
Natural gas
is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals
[...More...]

"Natural Gas" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Sensible Heat
Sensible heat
Sensible heat
is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.[1][2][3][4] Usage[edit]ThermodynamicsThe classical Carnot heat engineBranchesClassical Statistical Chemical Quantum thermodynamicsEquilibrium / Non-equilibriumLawsZeroth First Second ThirdSystemsStateEquation of state Ideal gas Real gas
[...More...]

"Sensible Heat" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Latent Heat
Latent heat
Latent heat
is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition. Latent heat
Latent heat
can be understood as heat energy in hidden form which is supplied or extracted to change the state of a substance without changing its temperature. Examples are latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization involved in phase changes, i.e. a substance condensing or vaporizing at a specified temperature and pressure.[1][2] The term was introduced around 1762 by British chemist Joseph Black. It is derived from the Latin latere (to lie hidden)
[...More...]

"Latent Heat" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Phase Transition
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma. A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change, often discontinuously, as a result of the change of some external condition, such as temperature, pressure, or others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition
[...More...]

"Phase Transition" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Enthalpy Of Vaporization
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. The enthalpy of vaporization is often quoted for the normal boiling temperature of the substance; although tabulated values are usually corrected to 298 K, that correction is often smaller than the uncertainty in the measured value. The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and for reduced temperature T r displaystyle T_ r ≪ 1 displaystyle ll 1
[...More...]

"Enthalpy Of Vaporization" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Enthalpy Of Fusion
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, (or resulting from the release of energy from a substance during transition from liquid to solid), at constant pressure. (It is used to describe the change in phase of matter on melting or freezing.) This energy includes the contribution required to make room for any associated change in volume by displacing its environment against ambient pressure. The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point or the freezing point, according to context
[...More...]

"Enthalpy Of Fusion" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
[...More...]

"Hydrogen" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hydrocarbons
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon,[1]:620 and thus are group 14 hydrides
[...More...]

"Hydrocarbons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
(American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline
Gasoline
is produced in several grades of octane rating
[...More...]

"Gasoline" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Diesel Fuel
Diesel fuel
Diesel fuel
/ˈdiːzəl/ in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel. (Glow plugs, grid heaters and block heaters help achieve high temperatures for combustion during engine startup in cold weather.) Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic efficiency and thus fuel efficiency. This is particularly noted where diesel engines are run at part-load; as their air supply is not throttled as in a petrol engine, their efficiency still remains very high. The most common type of diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted
[...More...]

"Diesel Fuel" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Condensing Boiler
Condensing boilers are water heaters fueled by gas or oil. They achieve high efficiency (typically greater than 90% on the higher heating value) by condensing water vapour in the exhaust gases and so recovering its latent heat of vaporisation, which would otherwise have been wasted. This condensed vapour leaves the system in liquid form, via a drain. In many countries, the use of condensing boilers is compulsory or encouraged with financial incentives.Contents1 Principles of work 2 Usage 3 Efficiency 4 Control 5 Reliability 6 Building Research Establishment 7 Exhaust 8 Cost 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksPrinciples of work[edit] In a conventional boiler, fuel is burned and the hot gases produced pass through a heat exchanger where much of their heat is transferred to water, thus raising the water's temperature. One of the hot gases produced in the combustion process is water vapour (steam), which arises from burning the hydrogen content of the fuel
[...More...]

"Condensing Boiler" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fuel
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy
[...More...]

"Fuel" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Power Plants
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power. The relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas to generate electricity
[...More...]

"Power Plants" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Flue-gas Condensation
Flue gas condensation is a process, where flue gas is cooled below its water dew point and the heat released by the resulting condensation of water is recovered as low temperature heat. Cooling of the flue gas can be performed either directly with a heat exchanger or indirectly via a condensing scrubber. The condensation of water releases more than 2 gigajoules (560 kWh) per ton of condensed water, which can be recovered in the cooler for e.g. district heating purposes. Excess condensed water must continuously be removed from the process. The downstream gas is saturated with water, so even though significant amounts of water may have been removed from the cooled gas, it is likely to leave a visible stack plume of water vapor. The heat recovery potential of flue gas condensation is highest for fuels with a high moisture content (e.g. biomass and municipal waste), and where heat is useful at the lowest possible temperatures
[...More...]

"Flue-gas Condensation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.