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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary systems , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President
President
of the United States )
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ ( Urdu
Urdu
) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: Qaum
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Constitution
A CONSTITUTION is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Nation State
A NATION STATE is a type of state that joins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation , from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state . A state is specifically a political and geopolitical entity, whilst a nation is a cultural and ethnic one. The term "nation state" implies that the two coincide, in that a state has chosen to adopt and endorse a specific cultural group as associated with it. The concept of a nation state can be compared and contrasted with that of the multinational state , city state , empire , confederation , and other state formations with which it may overlap. The key distinction is the identification of a people with a polity in the "nation state"
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Protocol (diplomacy)
In international politics , PROTOCOL is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state . It may also refer to an international agreement that supplements or amends a treaty. A protocol is a rule which describes how an activity should be performed, especially in the field of diplomacy. In diplomatic services and governmental fields of endeavor protocols are often unwritten guidelines. Protocols specify the proper and generally accepted behavior in matters of state and diplomacy , such as showing appropriate respect to a head of state, ranking diplomats in chronological order of their accreditation at court, and so on. One definition is: PROTOCOL is commonly described as a set of international courtesy rules. These well-established and time-honored rules have made it easier for nations and people to live and work together. Part of protocol has always been the acknowledgment of the hierarchical standing of all present. Protocol rules are based on the principles of civility.—Dr
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green Capital and largest city
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Chief Executive Officer
A CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive , leader or administrator in charge of managing an organization . CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations (e.g., Crown corporations ). The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues, or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. Titles also often given to the holder of CEO position include president , CHIEF EXECUTIVE (CE), and MANAGING DIRECTOR (MD), as well as REPRESENTATIVE DIRECTOR (RD) in Japan
Japan

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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Hong Kong Basic Law
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法 Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Zhōnghúa Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū Jīběnfǎ YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION Jūngwàh Yàhnmàhn Guhngwòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui Gēibúnfaat JYUTPING Zung1waa4 Jan4man4 Gung6wo4gwok3 Hoeng1gong2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3keoi1 Gei1bun2faat3 Politics and government of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Basic Law * Human rights Executive * Chief Executive Carrie Lam
Carrie Lam
* Chief Secretary Matthew Cheung
Matthew Cheung
* Financial Secretary Paul Chan * Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen
Rimsky Yuen
* Executive Council Convenor: Bernard Chan * Bureaus, departments and etc
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Governors Of States Of India
EXECUTIVE : * President * Vice President * Prime Minister * Union Council of Ministers * Cabinet Secretary of India * Civil Services of India -------------------------PARLIAMENT : * Rajya Sabha * Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
* The Chairman * The Speaker -------------------------JUDICIARY : * Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court of India
* Chief Justice of India
Chief Justice of India
* High Courts * District Courts Elections ELECTION COMMISSION : * Chief Election Commissioner Political parties * National parties * State parties -------------------------NATIONAL COALITIONS: * National Democratic Alliance (NDA) * United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) State Govt. and Local Govt
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Provinces And Territories Of Canada
Canada
Canada
's geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. When Canada
Canada
was formed in 1867, three provinces of British North America
British North America
New Brunswick , Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and the Province of Canada
Canada
(which, on the formation of Canada, was divided into Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
)—were united to form a federated colony, which eventually became a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories
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Governors Of The Australian States
The GOVERNORS OF THE AUSTRALIAN STATES are the representatives of the Queen of Australia
Australia
in each of Australia's six states . The governors are the nominal chief executives of the states, performing the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia
Australia
at the national or federal level. The state governors are not subject to the constitutional authority of the governor-general, but are directly responsible to the Queen. In practice, with few exceptions the governors are required by convention to act on the advice of the state premiers or the other members of a state's Cabinet
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State (polity)
In terms of a political entity , a STATE is any politically organized community living under a single system of government . States may or may not be sovereign . For instance, federated states are members of a federal union , and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, nonetheless, states. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states . The term "state" can also refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions . Speakers of American English
American English
often use the terms state and government as synonyms , with both words referring to an organized political group that exercises authority over a particular territory. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, but others have been stateless societies
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