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Head Of Government
A HEAD OF GOVERNMENT (or CHIEF OF GOVERNMENT) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country
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Constitutional Advice
ADVICE, in constitutional law , is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Especially in parliamentary systems of government , heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers. For example, in constitutional monarchies , the monarch usually appoints Ministers of the Crown on the advice of his or her prime minister. Among the most prominent forms of advice offered are: * Advice to appoint and remove individual ministers. * Advice to dissolve parliament . * Advice to deliver formal statements, such as a speech from the throne .In some states, the duty to accept advice is legally enforceable, having been created by a constitution or statute. For example, the Basic Law of Germany requires the President to appoint federal ministers on the advice of the Chancellor
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Absolute Monarchies
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, or DESPOTIC MONARCHY, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature , or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies . In contrast, in constitutional monarchies , the head of state 's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature
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Figurehead
In politics, a FIGUREHEAD is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power. The metaphor derives from the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship. Commonly cited figureheads include Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who is Queen of sixteen Commonwealth realms and head of the Commonwealth , but has no power over the nations in which she is not head of state and does not exercise power in her own realms on her own initiative
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Chambers Of Parliament
A LEGISLATIVE CHAMBER or HOUSE is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers. Legislatures are usually unicameral , consisting of only one chamber, or bicameral , consisting of two, but there are rare examples of tricameral and tetracameral legislatures. CONTENTS * 1 Bicameralism * 2 Merging of chambers * 3 Floor and committee * 4 Security * 5 References * 6 See also BICAMERALISMThe lower house is almost always the originator of legislation , and the upper house is the body that offers the "second look" and decides whether to veto or approve the bills . In the United Kingdom legislation can be originated in either house, but the lower house can ultimately prevail if the two houses repeatedly disagree
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De Facto
In law and government, DE FACTO (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/ ; Latin : de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: ), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards
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Separation Of Powers
The SEPARATION OF POWERS, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the TRIAS POLITICA principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state). Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature , an executive , and a judiciary , which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature (and sometimes parts of the judiciary) are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent is to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances
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Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy
(such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar
Tsar
for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century
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Primary Legislation
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government , PRIMARY LEGISLATION and SECONDARY LEGISLATION, the latter also called DELEGATED LEGISLATION or SUBORDINATE LEGISLATION, are two forms of law , created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government. Primary legislation generally consists of statutes, also known as "acts", that set out broad outlines and principles, but delegate specific authority to an executive branch to make more specific laws under the aegis of the principal act. The executive branch can then issue secondary legislation (mainly via its regulatory agencies ), creating legally-enforceable regulations and the procedures for implementing them
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Cohabitation (government)
COHABITATION is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems , such as France
France
, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament . It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister ) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature
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National Assembly (France)
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (French: Assemblée nationale; pronounced ) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France
France
under the Fifth Republic . The upper house is the Senate (Sénat). The National Assembly's members are known as députés (French pronunciation: ​ ; "delegate" or "envoy" in English; the word is an etymological cognate of the English word "deputy", usually "adjoint" in French). There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system . Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority. The assembly is presided over by a president (currently François de Rugy ), normally from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown ) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE, or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba
Cuba
, and formerly communist states in the East Germany
East Germany
, Poland
Poland
, Romania
Romania
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam
Vietnam

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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Constitutional Monarchies
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law
International law
defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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