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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature , varies greatly among sovereign states, depending largely on the particular makeup of the government that has been chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems , including constitutional monarchies , the head of government is the _de facto _ political leader of the government, and is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States ). Former French president Charles de Gaulle , while developing the current Constitution of France (1958), said the head of state should embody _l'esprit de la nation_ ("the spirit of the nation")
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire . The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation . The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth . The Queen is also the monarch of 16 members of the Commonwealth, known as _ Commonwealth realms _. The other Commonwealth members have different heads of state: 31 members are republics and five are monarchies with a different monarch. Member states have no legal obligation to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, culture and their shared values of democracy , free speech , human rights , and the rule of law . These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games
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Commonwealth Heads Of Government Meeting
The COMMONWEALTH HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MEETING (CHOGM; /ˈtʃɒɡəm/ or/ˈtʃoʊm/ ) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. Every two years the meeting is held in a different member state and is chaired by that nation's respective Prime Minister or President who becomes the Commonwealth Chair-in-Office until the next meeting. Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who is the Head of the Commonwealth , attended every CHOGM beginning with Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1973 until Perth
Perth
in 2011, although her formal participation only began in 1997. However, she was represented by the Prince of Wales at the 2013 meeting as the 87-year-old monarch was curtailing her overseas travel. The Queen continues to attend CHOGMs held in Europe and was present at the 2015 summit in Malta
Malta
and is expected to attend the 2018 CHOGM which is to be held in London. The first CHOGM was held in 1971, and there have been 24 held in total: the most recent was held in Valletta
Valletta
, Malta. They are held once every two years, although this pattern has twice been interrupted. They are held around the Commonwealth, rotating by invitation amongst its members. In the past, CHOGMs have attempted to orchestrate common policies on certain contentious issues and current events, with a special focus on issues affecting member nations
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William Lyon Mackenzie King
WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE KING OM , CMG , PC (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as MACKENZIE KING, was the dominant Canadian political leader, as the Prime Minister of Canada , from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930 and 1935–1948. He is best known for his leadership of Canada throughout the Second World War (1939–1945) when he mobilized Canadian money, supplies and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining home front morale. A Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history . Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition (as a boy, his motto was " Help those that cannot help themselves"), and played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state . King acceded to the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1919. Taking the helm of a party bitterly torn apart during the First World War , he reconciled factions, unifying the Liberal Party and leading it to victory in the 1921 election . His party was out of office during the harshest days of the Great Depression in Canada , 1930–35; he returned when the economy was on an upswing
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY Toronto OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * English * French ETHNIC GROUPS Ethnic demography * 76.7% White * 14.2% Asian * 4.3% Indigenous * 2.9% Black * 1.2% Latin American * 0.5% Multiracial * 0.3% Other RELIGION List of religion
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Jan Smuts
Field Marshal
Field Marshal
JAN CHRISTIAAN SMUTS OM , CH , ED , PC , KC , FRS (24 May 1870 – 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948. Although Smuts had originally advocated racial segregation and opposed the enfranchisement of black Africans, his views changed and he backed the Fagan Commission's findings that complete segregation was impossible. Smuts subsequently lost the 1948 election to hard-line Afrikaners who created apartheid. He continued to work for reconciliation and emphasised the British Commonwealth’s positive role until his death in 1950. He led a Boer Commando
Boer Commando
in the Second Boer Warfor the Transvaal . During the First World War
First World War
, he led the armies of South Africa
South Africa
against Germany , capturing German South-West Africaand commanding the British Army
British Army
in East Africa . From 1917 to 1919, he was also one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinetand he was instrumental in the founding of what became the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF)
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans * Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured * 8.4% White * 2.5% Asian RELIGION See _ Religion in South Africa _ DEMONYM South African GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Jacob Zuma • DEPUTY PRESIDENT Cyril Ramaphosa LEGISLATURE Parliament • UPPER HOUSE National Council • LOWER HOUSE National Assembly INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED K
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Winston Churchill
SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER-CHURCHILL, KG , OM , CH , TD , PC , PCc , DL , FRS , RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory over Nazi Germany during World War II . Churchill was also an officer in the British Army , a non-academic historian, and a writer (as Winston S. Churchill) . He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, lifetime body of work. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough , a branch of the Spencer family . His father, Lord Randolph Churchill , was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer ; his mother, Jennie Jerome , was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India , the Anglo–Sudan War , and the Second Boer War . He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns. At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade , Home Secretary , and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith\'s Liberal government
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Peter Fraser (New Zealand Politician)
PETER FRASER CH PC (28 August 1884 – 12 December 1950) was a New Zealand political figure who served as the 24th Prime Minister from 27 March 1940 until 13 December 1949. He assumed the office nearly seven months after the outbreak of World War II
World War II
and remained as head of government for almost ten years. Considered by historians as a major figure in the history of New Zealand Labour Party
New Zealand Labour Party
, he was in office longer than any other New Zealand Labour Prime Minister and is to date the fourth-longest serving Prime Minister. CONTENTS * 1 In Scotland
Scotland
until 1910 * 2 Move to New Zealand * 3 Co-founder of New Zealand Labour Party
New Zealand Labour Party
* 4 Early parliamentary career * 5 Cabinet minister * 6 Prime Minister * 6.1 World War II
World War II
* 6.2 Post-war * 6.3 Statute of Westminster and the New Commonwealth * 6.4 Decline and defeat * 7 Leader of the Opposition * 8 Honours * 9 In popular culture * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links IN SCOTLAND UNTIL 1910A native of Scotland
Scotland
, Peter Fraser was born in Hill of Fearn , a small village near the town of Tain
Tain
in the Highland area of Easter Ross . He received a basic education, but had to leave school due to his family's poor financial state
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington , while its most populous city is Auckland . Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture . In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand
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John Curtin
JOHN JOSEPH AMBROSE CURTIN (8 January 1885 – 5 July 1945) was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia , serving from 1941 to 1945, and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1935 to 1945. Having first formed a minority government in 1941, Curtin led Labor to victory (and majority government) at the 1943 election , which remains Labor's greatest victory in a federal election (both in the House of Representatives and the Senate ). As the Member for Fremantle
Fremantle
, Curtin was the first and to date only prime minister to represent an electorate outside the Eastern states . Curtin successfully led Australia through the period when the nation was directly threatened by the Japanese advance in World War II, and is today widely regarded as one of the country's greatest prime ministers. With the end of the war in sight, Curtin died in office on 5 July 1945 and was succeeded briefly by Frank Forde and then by Ben Chifley . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Early political career * 3 Prime minister * 3.1 War with Germany * 3.2 War alongside the United States * 3.3 Military policies * 3.4 Homefront policies * 3.5 1943 re-election * 4 Death * 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 8.1 Primary sources * 9 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION The early 1900s (detail at bottom right) Curtin was born in Creswick , Victoria in 1885
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney NATIONAL LANGUAGE English RELIGION * 52.1% Christianity * 30.1% No religion * 9.6% Not stated or unclear * 2.6% Islam * 2.5% Buddhism * 1.9% Hinduism * 0.8% Other religions * 0.4% Judaism
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Federated State
A FEDERATED STATE (which may be referred to as a STATE, a _province_, a _canton _, a _Land_, etc.) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation . Such states diff