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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States )
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire . The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation . The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth
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Commonwealth Heads Of Government Meeting
The COMMONWEALTH HEADS OF GOVERNMENT MEETING (CHOGM; /ˈtʃɒɡəm/ or/ˈtʃoʊm/ ) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. Every two years the meeting is held in a different member state and is chaired by that nation's respective Prime Minister or President who becomes the Commonwealth Chair-in-Office until the next meeting. Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who is the Head of the Commonwealth
Head of the Commonwealth
, attended every CHOGM beginning with Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1973 until Perth
Perth
in 2011, although her formal participation only began in 1997. However, she was represented by the Prince of Wales at the 2013 meeting as the 87-year-old monarch was curtailing her overseas travel
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William Lyon Mackenzie King
WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE KING OM , CMG , PC (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as MACKENZIE KING, was the dominant Canadian political leader, as the Prime Minister of Canada , from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930 and 1935–1948. He is best known for his leadership of Canada throughout the Second World War (1939–1945) when he mobilized Canadian money, supplies and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining home front morale. A Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history . Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition (as a boy, his motto was " Help those that cannot help themselves"), and played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY
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Jan Smuts
Field Marshal
Field Marshal
JAN CHRISTIAAN SMUTS OM , CH , ED , PC , KC , FRS (24 May 1870 – 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948. Although Smuts had originally advocated racial segregation and opposed the enfranchisement of black Africans, his views changed and he backed the Fagan Commission's findings that complete segregation was impossible. Smuts subsequently lost the 1948 election to hard-line Afrikaners who created apartheid. He continued to work for reconciliation and emphasised the British Commonwealth’s positive role until his death in 1950
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans * Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured * 8.4% White * 2.5% Asian RELIGION See _ Religion in South Africa _ DEMONYM South African GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT
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Winston Churchill
SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER-CHURCHILL, KG , OM , CH , TD , PC , PCc , DL , FRS , RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory over Nazi Germany during World War II . Churchill was also an officer in the British Army , a non-academic historian, and a writer (as Winston S. Churchill) . He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, lifetime body of work. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough , a branch of the Spencer family . His father, Lord Randolph Churchill , was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer ; his mother, Jennie Jerome , was an American socialite
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

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Peter Fraser (New Zealand Politician)
PETER FRASER CH PC (28 August 1884 – 12 December 1950) was a New Zealand political figure who served as the 24th Prime Minister from 27 March 1940 until 13 December 1949. He assumed the office nearly seven months after the outbreak of World War II
World War II
and remained as head of government for almost ten years. Considered by historians as a major figure in the history of New Zealand Labour Party , he was in office longer than any other New Zealand Labour Prime Minister and is to date the fourth-longest serving Prime Minister
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions
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John Curtin
JOHN JOSEPH AMBROSE CURTIN (8 January 1885 – 5 July 1945) was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia , serving from 1941 to 1945, and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1935 to 1945. Having first formed a minority government in 1941, Curtin led Labor to victory (and majority government) at the 1943 election , which remains Labor's greatest victory in a federal election (both in the House of Representatives and the Senate ). As the Member for Fremantle
Fremantle
, Curtin was the first and to date only prime minister to represent an electorate outside the Eastern states . Curtin successfully led Australia through the period when the nation was directly threatened by the Japanese advance in World War II, and is today widely regarded as one of the country's greatest prime ministers. With the end of the war in sight, Curtin died in office on 5 July 1945 and was succeeded briefly by Frank Forde and then by Ben Chifley
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney NATIONAL LANGUAGE English RELIGION * 52.1% Christianity * 30.1% No religion * 9.6% Not stated or unclear * 2.6%
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Federated State
A FEDERATED STATE (which may be referred to as a STATE, a _province_, a _canton _, a _Land_, etc.) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation . Such states differ from fully sovereign states , in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government . Importantly, when states choose to federate, they lose their standing as entities of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity becomes the sovereign state for purposes of international law. A federated state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government . In some cases, a federation is created from a union of political entities, which are either independent, or dependent territories of another sovereign entity (most commonly a colonial power ). In other cases, federated states have been created out of the regions of previously unitary states
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