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Hazzan
A hazzan (/ˈhɑːzən/;[1] Hebrew: [χaˈzan]) or chazzan (Hebrew: חַזָּן‎ ḥazzān, plural ḥazzānim; Yiddish
Yiddish
khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish
Jewish
musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.[2] In English, this prayer leader is often referred to as cantor, a term also used in Christianity.Contents1 The shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan 2 Qualifications 3 Professional status3.1 Training4 Female cantors in non-Orthodox Judaism 5 Golden age 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksThe shaliaḥ tzibbur and the evolution of the hazzan[edit] The person leading the congregation in public prayers is called the shaliaḥ tzibbur (Hebrew for "emissary of the congregation")
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Jewish Identity
Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.[1] Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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Chazan, Iran
Chizan
Chizan
(Persian: چيزان‎, also Romanized as Chīzān and Chizān; also known as Chazān, Chezān, and Jazān)[1] is a village in Deh Chal
Deh Chal
Rural District, in the Central District of Khondab
Khondab
County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 803, in 184 families.[2] References[edit]^ Chizan
Chizan
can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3058223" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Hazard Analysis
Note: Parts of this article are written from the perspective of aircraft safety analysis techniques and definitions; these may not represent current best practice and the article needs to be updated to represent a more generic description of hazard analysis and discussion of more modern standards and techniques. A hazard analysis is used as the first step in a process used to assess risk. The result of a hazard analysis is the identification of different type of hazards. A hazard is a potential condition and exists or not (probability is 1 or 0). It may in single existence or in combination with other hazards (sometimes called events) and conditions become an actual Functional Failure or Accident (Mishap). The way this exactly happens in one particular sequence is called a scenario. This scenario has a probability (between 1 and 0) of occurrence. Often a system has many potential failure scenarios
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Stadttempel
The Stadttempel
Stadttempel
(English: City Prayer House), also called the Seitenstettengasse Temple, is the main synagogue of Vienna, Austria. It is located in the Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
1st district, at Seitenstettengasse 4.Contents1 History 2 Architecture 3 Famous members 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The synagogue was constructed in 1824 and 1826. The luxurious Stadttempel
Stadttempel
was fitted into a block of houses and hidden from plain view of the street, because of an edict issued by Emperor Joseph II that only Roman Catholic places of worship were allowed to be built with facades fronting directly on to public streets. Ironically, this edict saved the synagogue from total destruction during the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in November 1938, since the synagogue could not be destroyed without setting on fire the buildings to which it was attached
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline may refer to: Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline (software), a note-taking application Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edges of a person or object, without interior details or shading
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Bar And Bat Mitzvah
Bar
Bar
Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּר מִצְוָה‬) is a Jewish
Jewish
coming of age ritual for boys. Bat Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּת מִצְוָה‬; Ashkenazi pronunciation: Bas Mitzvah) is a Jewish
Jewish
coming of age ritual for girls. The plural is B'nai Mitzvah for boys, and B'not Mitzvah (Ashkenazi pronunciation: B'nos Mitzvah) for girls. According to Jewish
Jewish
law, when Jewish
Jewish
boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah. A girl becomes a bat mitzvah at the age of 12 according to Orthodox and Conservative Jews, and at the age of 13 according to Reform Jews.[1] Prior to reaching bar mitzvah age, the child's parents hold the responsibility for the child's actions
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Beit Yosef (book)
Beit Yosef (Hebrew: בית יוסף‎) — also transliterated Beth Yosef — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro. It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba'ah Turim. It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch).This article about a Judaism-related book or text is a stub
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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Jewish Peoplehood
Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood (Hebrew: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people.[1] The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people.[2] Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
Laws and customs of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
in Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: מצוות התלויות בארץ‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel.[1] Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows:Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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613 Commandments
The tradition that 613 commandments
613 commandments
(Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות‬, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud
Talmud
Makkot 23b.[1] Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides'. The 613 commandments
613 commandments
include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh)
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Targum
The targumim (singular: "targum", Hebrew: תרגום‬) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship.[1] The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, and the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter".[2] It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews
Jews
or Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים‬, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַד‬ Y'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews
Jews
of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews
Jews
coalesced during the early Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula
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