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Hazardous Waste
HAZARDOUS WASTE is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment . In the United States, the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA). Hazardous wastes are defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261 where they are divided into two major categories: characteristic wastes and listed wastes. * Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or more of the following four hazardous traits: * ignitability * reactivity * corrosivity * toxicity * Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products
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Appropriation (law)
In law and government , APPROPRIATION (from Latin
Latin
appropriare, "to make one's own", later "to set aside") is the act of setting apart something for its application to a particular usage, to the exclusion of all other uses. It typically refers to the legislative designation of money for particular uses, in the context of a budget or spending bill . CONTENTS * 1 Ecclesiastical law * 2 Law
Law
of debtor and creditor * 3 Law
Law
* 3.1 United States * 4 Criminal law * 5 Contract authority * 6 See also * 7 References ECCLESIASTICAL LAWIn ecclesiastical law , appropriation is the perpetual annexation of an ecclesiastical benefice to the use of some spiritual corporation, either aggregate or sole
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Infrastructure Asset Management
INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET MANAGEMENT is the integrated, multidisciplinary set of strategies in sustaining public infrastructure assets such as water treatment facilities, sewer lines , roads , utility grids , bridges , and railways . Generally, the process focuses on the later stages of a facility’s life cycle specifically maintenance , rehabilitation , and replacement. Asset management specifically uses software tools to organize and implement these strategies with the fundamental goal to preserve and extend the service life of long-term infrastructure assets which are vital underlying components in maintaining the quality of life in society and efficiency in the economy
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Lindahl Tax
A LINDAHL TAX is a form of taxation conceived by Erik Lindahl in which individuals pay for public goods according to their marginal benefits . In other words, they pay according to the amount of satisfaction or utility they derive from the consumption of an additional unit of the public good. It can be seen as an individual's share of the collective tax burden of an economy. The optimal level of a public good is that quantity at which the willingness to pay for one more unit of the good, taken in totality for all the individuals is equal to the marginal cost of supplying that good. Lindahl tax
Lindahl tax
is the optimal quantity times the willingness to pay for one more unit of that good at this quantity
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Build-Operate-Transfer
BUILD–OPERATE–TRANSFER (BOT) or BUILD–OWN–OPERATE–TRANSFER (BOOT) is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, own, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance expenses in the project. Due to the long-term nature of the arrangement, the fees are usually raised during the concession period. The rate of increase is often tied to a combination of internal and external variables, allowing the proponent to reach a satisfactory internal rate of return for its investment
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Design-build
DESIGN–BUILD (or DESIGN/BUILD, and abbreviated D–B or D/B accordingly) is a project delivery system used in the construction industry. It is a method to deliver a project in which the design and construction services are contracted by a single entity known as the DESIGN–BUILDER or DESIGN–BUILD CONTRACTOR. In contrast to "design–bid–build " (or "design–tender"), design–build relies on a single point of responsibility contract and is used to minimize risks for the project owner and to reduce the delivery schedule by overlapping the design phase and construction phase of a project. "DB with its single point responsibility carries the clearest contractual remedies for the clients because the DB contractor will be responsible for all of the work on the project, regardless of the nature of the fault". The traditional approach for construction projects consists of the appointment of a designer on one side, and the appointment of a contractor on the other side
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Wastewater
WASTEWATER, also written as WASTE WATER, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Wastewater can originate from a combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater , and from sewer inflow or infiltration. Municipal wastewater (also called sewage ) is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer , and treated at a wastewater treatment plant . Treated wastewater is discharged into receiving water via an effluent pipe. Wastewaters generated in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site wastewater systems . These typically comprise a septic tank , drain field , and optionally an on-site treatment unit . The management of wastewater belongs to the overarching term sanitation , just like the management of human excreta , solid waste and stormwater (drainage)
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Weir
A WEIR /ˈwɪər/ is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the vertical height of the river level. There are many designs of weir, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Function * 2.1 Flow measurement * 2.2 Control of invasive species * 2.3 Watermills * 2.4 Flood control and altering river conditions * 3 Issues * 3.1 Ecology * 3.2 Fish migration * 3.3 Safety * 4 Common types * 4.1 Broad-crested * 4.2 Compound * 4.3 V-notch * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThere is no single definition as to what constitutes a weir and one English dictionary simply defines a weir as a small dam , likely originating from Middle English were, Old English wer, derivative of root of werian, meaning "to defend, dam"
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Sluice
A SLUICE (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. A mill race , leet , flume , penstock or lade is a sluice channelling water toward a water mill . The terms SLUICE, SLUICE GATE, KNIFE GATE, and SLIDE GATE are used interchangeably in the water and wastewater control industry. A sluice gate is traditionally a wood or metal barrier sliding in grooves that are set in the sides of the waterway. Sluice
Sluice
gates commonly control water levels and flow rates in rivers and canals . They are also used in wastewater treatment plants and to recover minerals in mining operations, and in watermills. OPERATION" Sluice
Sluice
gate" refers to a movable gate allowing water to flow under it. When a sluice is lowered, water may spill over the top, in which case the gate operates as a weir . Usually, a mechanism drives the sluice up or down
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Telecommunication
TELECOMMUNICATION is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology . It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables , or via electromagnetic radiation . Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing . Since the Latin
Latin
term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons , smoke signals , semaphore telegraphs , signal flags , and optical heliographs
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Public Utility
A PUBLIC UTILITY (usually just UTILITY) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure). Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to statewide government monopolies. The term UTILITIES can also refer to the set of services provided by these organizations consumed by the public: electricity , natural gas, water , sewage , telephone, and transportation. Broadband
Broadband
internet services (both fixed-line and mobile ) are increasingly being included within the definition
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Water Supply Network
A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM or WATER SUPPLY NETWORK is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply . A water supply system typically includes: * A drainage basin (see water purification - sources of drinking water ). * A raw water collection point (above or below ground) where the water accumulates, such as a lake , a river , or groundwater from an underground aquifer . Raw water may be transferred using uncovered ground-level aqueducts , covered tunnels or underground water pipes to water purification facilities. * Water purification
Water purification
facilities. Treated water is transferred using water pipes (usually underground). * Water
Water
storage facilities such as reservoirs , water tanks , or water towers . Smaller water systems may store the water in cisterns or pressure vessels
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Earmark (politics)
In public finance , an EARMARK is a provision inserted into a discretionary government spending appropriations bill that directs funds to a specific recipient while circumventing the merit-based or competitive funds allocation process. The term "earmark" is used in this sense in the United States
United States
and South Africa
South Africa
. CONTENTS* 1 United States
United States
* 1.1 Definitions * 1.2 Appropriation committees * 1.3 Value * 1.4 Legislation * 1.5 Alternatives to congressional earmarks * 1.6 Earmarks and transportation * 1.7 Debates * 1.8 In popular culture * 2 South Africa
South Africa
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links UNITED STATESIn the United States, the term earmark is used in relation with the congressional allocation process
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Fixed Cost
In economics, FIXED COSTS, INDIRECT COSTS or OVERHEADS are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business. They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month, and are often referred to as overhead costs. This is in contrast to variable costs , which are volume-related (and are paid per quantity produced). For a simple example, such as a bakery , the monthly rent for the baking facilities, and the monthly payments for the security system and basic phone line are fixed costs, as they do not change according to how much bread the bakery produces and sells. On the other hands, the wage costs of the bakery are variable, as the bakery will have to hire more workers if the production of bread increases
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Public Capital
PUBLIC CAPITAL is the aggregate body of government-owned assets that are used as a means for productivity. Such assets span a wide range including: large components such as highways , airports , roads , transit systems , and railways ; local, municipal components such as public education , public hospitals , police and fire protection , prisons , and courts ; and critical components including water and sewer systems , public electric and gas utilities , and telecommunications . Often, public capital is defined as government outlay, in terms of money, and as physical stock, in terms of infrastructure. CONTENTS * 1 Current state in the U.S. * 2 Economic growth * 3 Social benefit * 4 Public capital
Public capital
initiatives * 4.1 United States * 4.2 Other countries * 5 See also * 6 References CURRENT STATE IN THE U.S.In 1988, the U.S
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Public-private Partnership
A PUBLIC–PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of public and private endeavors throughout history. However, the past few decades have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a governance mechanism and a language game. When understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is also closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services
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