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Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste
Hazardous waste
is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.[1]Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or more of the following hazardous traits:Ignitability Reactivity Corrosivity ToxicityListed hazardous wastes are materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products.[2]Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives
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Public Sector
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public services include public goods and governmental services such as the military, police, infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, etc.), public transit, public education, along with health care and those working for the government itself, such as elected officials
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Maintenance, Repair, And Operations
The technical meaning of maintenance involves operational and functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations.[1][2] Over time, this has come to often include both scheduled and preventive maintenance as cost-effective practices to keep equipment ready for operation at the utilization stage of a system lifecycle. The marine transportation,[3] offshore structures,[4] industrial plant and facility management industries depend on maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) including scheduled or preventive paint maintenance programmes to maintain and restore coatings applied to steel in environments subject to attack from erosion, corrosion and environmental pollution.[4]Contents1 Definitions 2 Types2.1 Preventive 2.2 Corrective 2.3 Predictive3 See also 4 ReferencesDefinitions[edit]Road
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State School
State schools (also known as public schools outside England
England
and Wales[note 1]) are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. These schools are generally inclusive (non-selective) in admitting all students within the geographical area that they serve. While state schools are to be found in virtually every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education (kindergarten to twelfth grade, or equivalent), as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities, colleges, and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than private entities. The education system, or lack thereof, prior to the establishment of government-funded schools impacts their role in each society
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Public Space
A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public squares, parks and beaches are typically considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as public libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas and greater limits upon use. Although not considered public space, privately owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising. Recently, the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space jointly used by automobiles and other vehicles. Public space
Public space
has also become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, (urban) geography, visual art, cultural studies, social studies and urban design
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Rail Transport
Rail transport
Rail transport
is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves
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Natural Monopoly
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors
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Grand Coulee Dam
Original dam: $163 million 1943[1] ($1.86 billion in 2016 dollars[2])Third Powerplant: $730 million 1973[3] ($3.09 billion in 2016 dollars[2])Operator(s) U.S
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Sluice
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. A mill race, leet, flume, penstock or lade is a sluice channelling water toward a water mill. The terms sluice, sluice gate, knife gate, and slide gate are used interchangeably in the water and wastewater control industry. A sluice gate is traditionally a wood or metal barrier sliding in grooves that are set in the sides of the waterway. Sluice
Sluice
gates commonly control water levels and flow rates in rivers and canals. They are also used in wastewater treatment plants and to recover minerals in mining operations, and in watermills. Operation[edit] " Sluice
Sluice
gate" refers to a movable gate allowing water to flow under it. When a sluice is lowered, water may spill over the top, in which case the gate operates as a weir. Usually, a mechanism drives the sluice up or down
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Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.[1][2] Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physiical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing
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Earmark (politics)
In public finance, an earmark is a provision inserted into a discretionary government spending appropriations bill that directs funds to a specific recipient while circumventing the merit-based or competitive funds allocation process. The term "earmark" is used in this sense in the United States
United States
and South Africa.Contents1 United States1.1 Definitions 1.2 Appropriation committees 1.3 Value 1.4 Legislation 1.5 Alternatives to congressional earmarks 1.6 Earmarks and transportation 1.7 Debates 1.8 In popular culture2 South Africa 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksUnited States[edit] In the United States, the term earmark is used in relation with the congressional allocation process
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Life-cycle Assessment
Life-cycle assessment
Life-cycle assessment
(LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis)[1] is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Designers use this process to help critique their products
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Government Debt
Government debt
Government debt
(also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt)[1][2] is the debt owed by a government. By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. Government debt
Government debt
can be categorized as internal debt (owed to lenders within the country) and external debt (owed to foreign lenders). Another common division of government debt is by duration until repayment is due. Short term debt is generally considered to be for one year or less, long term is for more than ten years. Medium term debt falls between these two boundaries. A broader definition of government debt may consider all government liabilities, including future pension payments and payments for goods and services which the government has contracted but not yet paid. Governments create debt by issuing securities, government bonds and bills
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Weir
A weir /wɪər/ or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level
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Fixed Cost
In economics, fixed costs, indirect costs or overheads are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business. They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month, and are often referred to as overhead costs. This is in contrast to variable costs, which are volume-related (and are paid per quantity produced). For a simple example, such as a bakery, the monthly rent for the baking facilities, and the monthly payments for the security system and basic phone line are fixed costs, as they do not change according to how much bread the bakery produces and sells. On the other hands, the wage costs of the bakery are variable, as the bakery will have to hire more workers if the production of bread increases
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Appropriation (law)
In law and government, appropriation (from Latin
Latin
appropriare, "to make one's own", later "to set aside") is the act of setting apart something for its application to a particular usage, to the exclusion of all other uses. It typically refers to the legislative designation of money for particular uses, in the context of a budget or spending bill.Contents1 Ecclesiastical law 2 Law
Law
of debtor and creditor 3 Law3.1 United States4 Criminal law 5 Contract authority 6 See also 7 ReferencesEcclesiastical law[edit] In ecclesiastical law, appropriation is the perpetual annexation of an ecclesiastical benefice to the use of some spiritual corporation, either aggregate or sole. In the Middle Ages in England the custom grew up of the monasteries reserving to their own use the greater part of the tithes of their appropriated benefices, leaving only a small portion to their vicars in the parishes
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