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Haskap
LONICERA CAERULEA, the HONEYBERRY, BLUE-BERRIED HONEYSUCKLE, or SWEETBERRY HONEYSUCKLE, is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere . It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.5–2 m tall. The leaves are opposite, oval, 3–8 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, glaucous green, with a slightly waxy texture. The flowers are yellowish-white, 12–16 mm long, with five equal lobes; they are produced in pairs on the shoots. The fruit is an edible, blue berry about 1 cm in diameter. CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Varieties * 1.2 Common names * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Cultivation * 3.1 Disease * 4 Harvest and uses * 5 Phytochemicals * 6 Traditional medicine * 7 References * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe classification within the species is not settled. One classification uses nine varieties : * Lonicera caerulea var. altaica
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Pigment
A PIGMENT is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive . Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint , ink , plastic , fabric , cosmetics , food , and other materials
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Candy
CANDY, also called SWEETS or LOLLIES, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called _sugar confectionery _, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate , chewing gum , and sugar candy . Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be _candied _. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes . Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert. The same food may be a candy in one culture and a dessert in another
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Polyphenol
POLYPHENOLS (noun, pronunciation of the singular /pɒliˈfiːnəl/ or /pɒliˈfɛnəl/ ; also known as POLYHYDROXYPHENOLS) are a structural class of mainly natural , but also synthetic or semisynthetic , organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid (image at right) and ellagitannin (image below). The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. The name derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid (phenyl ) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix)
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Cyanidin 3-glucoside
CHRYSANTHEMIN is an anthocyanin . It is the 3-glucoside of cyanidin . CONTENTS* 1 Natural occurrences * 1.1 In food * 2 Biosynthesis * 3 References NATURAL OCCURRENCES Chrysanthemin can be found in the roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Malvaceae), different Japanese angiosperms , Rhaponticum (Asteraceae), The fruits of the smooth arrowwood ( Viburnum dentatum , Caprifoliaceae) appear blue. One of the major pigments is cyanidin 3-glucoside, but the total mixture is very complex. IN FOOD Chrysanthemin has been detected in blackcurrant pomace, in European elderberry , in red raspberries , in soybean seed coats , in victoria plum , in peach , lychee and açaí . It is found in red oranges and black rice. It is the major anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays). Purple corn is approved in Japan and listed in the " Existing Food Additive List " as purple corn color
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Cyanidin 3-rutinoside
ANTIRRHININ is an anthocyanin . It is the 3-rutinoside of cyanidin . OCCURRENCEIt can be found in Antirrhinum majus (common snapdragon). It can be found in blackcurrant , açaí , black raspberry , litchi pericarp and common fig . METABOLISMCyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase uses UDP-glucose and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (antirrhinin) to produce UDP and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-beta-D-glucoside . REFERENCES * ^ Scott-Moncrieff, R (1930). "Natural anthocyanin pigments: The magenta flower pigment of Antirrhinum majus" . Biochemical Journal. 24 (3): 753–766. PMC 1254517  . PMID 16744416 . * ^ Gilbert, R.I. (1971). "An unusual anthocyanin in Antirrhinum majus". Phytochemistry. 10 (11): 2848. doi :10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97309-6 . * ^ Slimestad, Rune; Solheim, Haavard (2002). "Anthocyanins from Black Currants (Ribes nigrumL.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (11): 3228–31. doi :10.1021/jf011581u . PMID 12009991
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Sauces
In cooking , a SAUCE is liquid , cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods . Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce is a French word taken from the Latin
Latin
salsa, meaning salted. Possibly the oldest recorded European sauce is garum , the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks ; while doubanjiang , the Chinese soy bean paste is mentioned in Rites of Zhou in 3rd century BC. Sauces need a liquid component, but some sauces (for example, pico de gallo salsa or chutney ) may contain more solid components than liquid. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for sweet or savory dishes. They may be prepared and served cold, like mayonnaise , prepared cold but served lukewarm like pesto , cooked and served warm like bechamel or cooked and served cold like apple sauce
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Yogurt
YOGURT, YOGHURT, or YOGHOURT (/ˈjoʊɡərt/ or /ˈjɒɡət/ ; from Turkish : _yoğurt_; other spellings listed below ) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk . The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid , which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow 's milk is commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo , goats , ewes , mares , camels , and yaks is also used to produce yogurt where available locally. Milk used may be homogenized or not (milk distributed in many parts of the world is homogenized ); both types may be used, with substantially different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of _ Lactobacillus delbrueckii_ subsp. _bulgaricus_ and _ Streptococcus thermophilus _ bacteria
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Pastries
PASTRY is a dough of flour, water and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers\' confectionery . The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour , sugar , milk , butter , shortening , baking powder , and eggs . Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called PASTRIES. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods. Common pastry dishes include pies , tarts , quiches and pasties . Pastry can also refer to the PASTRY DOUGH , from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling
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Jams
JAMS is a line of clothing produced by Jams World. HISTORYCompany founder Dave Rochlen was a surfer , originally in Santa Monica, California, then in Hawaii
Hawaii
. After reading a Life magazine article showing Russians looking comfortable attending the beach in bathrobes , Rochlen bought some brightly colored floral fabric and asked his wife Keanuenue to make a short, baggy pair of pajamas with a sewn-up fly and cut-off at the knee. They produced the first pair of Jams on December 25, 1964. Rochlen quit his job as a systems analyst and started his new company Surf Line Hawaii, Ltd. to make and sell his new product. Soon after his first commercial pairs of Jams were worn at Mākaha, Hawaii
Hawaii
, Life magazine ran a two-page spread on Rochlen and a group of his surfing friends in the June 1965 issue
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Juice
JUICE is a beverage made from the extraction or pressing out of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables . It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with these or other biological food sources such as meat and seafood (e.g., clam juice ). Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, such as smoothies . Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods allowed for its preservation without using fermentation (the approach used with wine production). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated the total world production of citrus fruit juices to be 12,840,318 tonnes in 2012. The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand (nearly a cup, or 8 ounces, each day) and Colombia (more than three quarters of a cup each day)
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Ice Cream
ICE CREAM (derived from earlier ICED CREAM or CREAM ICE ) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert . It is usually made from dairy products , such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors . It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes . Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard ", "frozen yogurt ", "sorbet ", "gelato " and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles
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Peonidin 3-glucoside
PEONIDIN-3-O-GLUCOSIDE is anthocyanin . It is found in fruits and berries, in red Vitis vinifera grapes and red wine , in red onions and in purple corn . It is dark red / purple in colour. SEE ALSO * Phenolic compounds in wine REFERENCES * ^ Peonidin 3-O-glucoside on www.phenol-explorer.eu * ^ Anthocyanins isolated from purple corn (Zea mays L.)
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Phytochemicals
PHYTOCHEMICALS are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning plant. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine . As a term, phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research with unestablished effects on health and are not scientifically defined as essential nutrients . Regulatory agencies governing food labeling in Europe and the United States have provided guidance for industry limiting or preventing anti-disease claims concerning phytochemicals on food product labels. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History of uses * 3 Functions * 4 Consumer and industry guidance * 5 Effects of food processing * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links DEFINITIONPlants are composed entirely of chemicals of various kinds
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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