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Haskap
Lonicera caerulea, the honeyberry, haskap berry, blue-berried honeysuckle,[2] or sweetberry honeysuckle,[3] is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere. Haskap berries are available in the countries such as North America, Canada, Japan, Russia, Poland etc. It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.5–2 m tall. The leaves are opposite, oval, 3–8 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, greyish green, with a slightly waxy texture. The flowers are yellowish-white, 12–16 mm long, with five equal lobes; they are produced in pairs on the shoots. The fruit is an edible, blue berry, somewhat rectangular in shape weighing 1.3 to 2.2 grams, and about 1 cm in diameter.[4]Contents1 Classification1.1 Varieties 1.2 Common names2 Distribution and habitat 3 Cultivation3.1 Disease4 Harvest and uses 5 Phytochemicals 6 Traditional medicine 7 References 8 External linksClassification[edit] The classification within the species is not settled
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Cyanidin 3-glucoside
Chrysanthemin
Chrysanthemin
is an anthocyanin. It is the 3-glucoside of cyanidin.Contents1 Natural occurrences1.1 In food2 Biosynthesis 3 ReferencesNatural occurrences[edit] Chrysanthemin
Chrysanthemin
can be found in the roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Malvaceae), different Japanese angiosperms,[1] Rhaponticum (Asteraceae),[2] The fruits of the smooth arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum, Caprifoliaceae) appear blue. One of the major pigments is cyanidin 3-glucoside, but the total mixture is very complex.[3] In food[edit] Chrysanthemin
Chrysanthemin
has been detected in blackcurrant pomace, in European elderberry,[4] in red raspberries, in soybean seed coats,[5] in victoria plum,[6] in peach,[7] lychee and açaí.[8] It is found in red oranges[9] and black rice.[10] It is the major anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays)
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Cross Pollination
Pollination
Pollination
is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.[2] Pollinating agents are animals such as insects, birds, and bats; water; wind; and even plants themselves, when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant breeding work. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Pastries
Pastry
Pastry
is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers' confectionery. The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.[1][2] Pastry
Pastry
can also refer to the pastry dough,[3] from which such baked products are made. Pastry
Pastry
dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked products. Pastry
Pastry
is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture
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Jam
Fruit
Fruit
preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used
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Juice
Juice
Juice
is a beverage made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood, such as clam juice. Juice
Juice
is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice
Juice
emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation (which is used in wine production).[1] The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand (nearly a cup, or 8 ounces, each day) and Colombia
Colombia
(more than three quarters of a cup each day)
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Ice Cream
Ice
Ice
cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice[1]) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes. Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles
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Yogurt
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (/ˈjoʊɡərt/ or /ˈjɒɡət/; from Turkish: yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.[1] The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor.[1] Cow's milk is commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk
Milk
from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used to produce yogurt where available locally
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Sauces
In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods. Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce
Sauce
is a French word taken from the Latin
Latin
salsa, meaning salted. Possibly the oldest recorded European sauce is garum, the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks; while doubanjiang, the Chinese soy bean paste is mentioned in Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
in 3rd century BC. Sauces need a liquid component, but some sauces (for example, pico de gallo salsa or chutney) may contain more solid components than liquid. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for sweet or savory dishes. They may be prepared and served cold, like mayonnaise, prepared cold but served lukewarm like pesto, cooked and served warm like bechamel or cooked and served cold like apple sauce
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Candy
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient[citation needed]. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes. Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert
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Pigment
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food, and other materials
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Polyphenol
Polyphenols[1][2] (noun, pronunciation of the singular /ˌpɒliˈfiːnoʊl/[3] or /ˌpɒliˈfiːnɒl/;[4][5] also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid (image at right) and ellagitannin (image below)
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Cyanidin 3-rutinoside
Antirrhinin
Antirrhinin
is an anthocyanin. It is the 3-rutinoside of cyanidin. Occurrence[edit] It can be found in Antirrhinum majus
Antirrhinum majus
(common snapdragon).[1][2] It can be found in blackcurrant,[3] açaí,[4] black raspberry,[5] litchi pericarp[6] and common fig.[7] Metabolism[edit] Cyanidin
Cyanidin
3-O-rutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase uses UDP-glucose and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (antirrhinin) to produce UDP and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-beta-D-glucoside. References[edit]^ Scott-Moncrieff, R (1930). "Natural anthocyanin pigments: The magenta flower pigment of Antirrhinum majus". Biochemical Journal. 24 (3): 753–766. PMC 1254517 . PMID 16744416.  ^ Gilbert, R.I. (1971). "An unusual anthocyanin in Antirrhinum majus". Phytochemistry. 10 (11): 2848. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97309-6.  ^ Slimestad, Rune; Solheim, Haavard (2002)
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Powdery Mildew
Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
diseases are caused by many different species of fungi in the order Erysiphales, with Podosphaera xanthii
Podosphaera xanthii
(a.k.a. Sphaerotheca fuliginea) being the most commonly reported cause.[1] Erysiphe cichoracearum
Erysiphe cichoracearum
was formerly reported to be the primary causal organism throughout most of the world.[1][2] Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
is one of the easier plant diseases to identify, as its symptoms are quite distinctive. Infected plants display white powdery spots on the leaves and stems. The lower leaves are the most affected, but the mildew can appear on any above-ground part of the plant
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Peonidin 3-glucoside
Peonidin-3-O-glucoside
Peonidin-3-O-glucoside
is anthocyanin. It is found in fruits and berries, in red Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera
grapes and red wine,[1] in red onions and in purple corn.[2] It is dark red / purple in colour. See also[edit]Phenolic compounds in wineReferences[edit]^ Peonidin
Peonidin
3-O-glucoside on www.phenol-explorer.eu ^ Anthocyanins isolated from purple corn (Zea mays L.)
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