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Haskap
LONICERA CAERULEA, the HONEYBERRY, HASKAP BERRY, BLUE-BERRIED HONEYSUCKLE, or SWEETBERRY HONEYSUCKLE, is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere . It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.5–2 m tall. The leaves are opposite, oval, 3–8 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, glaucous green, with a slightly waxy texture. The flowers are yellowish-white, 12–16 mm long, with five equal lobes; they are produced in pairs on the shoots. The fruit is an edible, blue berry about 1 cm in diameter. CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Varieties * 1.2 Common names * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Cultivation * 3.1 Disease * 4 Harvest and uses * 5 Phytochemicals
Phytochemicals
* 6 Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
* 7 References * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe classification within the species is not settled. One classification uses nine varieties : * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var. altaica. Northern Asia. * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var. caerulea. Europe. * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var. cauriana. Western North America. * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var. dependens. Central Asia. * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var. edulis, synonym: L. edulis. Eastern Asia. * Lonicera
Lonicera
caerulea var
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plantae
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Asterids
In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants , the name ASTERIDS denotes a clade (a monophyletic group). Common examples include the forget-me-nots , nightshades (including potatoes , eggplants , tomatoes , peppers and tobacco ), the common sunflower , petunias , morning glory and sweet potato , coffee , lavender , lilac , olive , jasmine , honeysuckle , ash tree , teak , snapdragon , sesame , psyllium , garden sage , and table herbs such as mint , basil , and rosemary . Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system (1981) and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems. The name asterids (not necessarily capitalised) resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the _ ICBN _. CONTENTS * 1 Phylogeny * 2 History * 3 References * 4 External links PHYLOGENYThe phylogenetic tree presented hereafter has been proposed by the APG IV project
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Dipsacales
Adoxaceae (moschatel family) Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
(honeysuckle family) The DIPSACALES are an order of flowering plants , included within the asterid group of dicotyledons . In the APG III system of 2009, the order includes only two families, Adoxaceae and a broadly defined Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
. Some well-known members of the Dipsacales
Dipsacales
order are honeysuckle , elder , viburnum , and valerian . Under the Cronquist system , the order included Adoxaceae, Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
sensu stricto , Dipsacaceae , and Valerianaceae . Under the 2003 APG II system
APG II system
, the circumscription of the order was much the same but the system allowed either a broadly circumscribed Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
including the families Diervillaceae
Diervillaceae
, Dipsacaceae , Linnaeaceae
Linnaeaceae
, Morinaceae
Morinaceae
, and Valerianaceae , or these families being kept separate. The APG III system only uses the broadly circumscribed Caprifoliceae. The Dipsacales
Dipsacales
appear to be most closely related to the Paracryphiales . REFERENCES * ^ A B C D Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009)
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Caprifoliaceae
See text. The CAPRIFOLIACEAE or HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY are a clade of dicotyledonous flowering plants consisting of about 860 species in 42 genera, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution . Centres of diversity are found in eastern North America
North America
and eastern Asia
Asia
, while they are absent in tropical and southern Africa
Africa
. They are mostly shrubs and vines , rarely herbs, including some ornamental garden plants in temperate regions. The leaves are mostly opposite with no stipules (appendages at the base of a leafstalk or petiole ), and may be either evergreen or deciduous . The flowers are tubular funnel-shaped or bell-like, usually with five outward spreading lobes or points, and are often fragrant. They usually form a small calyx with small bracts. The fruit is in most cases a berry or a drupe . The genera Diervilla and Weigela have capsular fruit. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Uses * 3 References * 4 External links TAXONOMYViews of the family-level classification of the traditionally accepted Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
and other plants in the botanical order Dipsacales
Dipsacales
have been considerably revised in recent decades
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Lonicera
See text - Selected Species HONEYSUCKLES (Lonicera, /lɒˈnɪsərə/ ; syn. Caprifolium Mill. ) are arching shrubs or twining bines in the family Caprifoliaceae , native to the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 180 species of honeysuckle have been identified. About 100 of these species can be found in China and approximately 20 native species have been identified in Europe, 20 in India, and 20 in North America. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum
Lonicera periclymenum
(honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica
Lonicera japonica
(Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens
Lonicera sempervirens
(coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
derives its name from the edible sweet nectar obtainable from its tubular flowers. The name Lonicera stems from Adam Lonicer
Adam Lonicer
, a Renaissance botanist
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Honeysuckle
See text - selected species HONEYSUCKLES (Lonicera, /lɒˈnɪsərə/ ; syn. Caprifolium Mill. ) are arching shrubs or twining bines in the family Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
, native to the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 180 species of honeysuckle have been identified. About 100 of these species can be found in China and approximately 20 native species have been identified in Europe, 20 in India, and 20 in North America. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum
Lonicera periclymenum
(honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica
Lonicera japonica
(Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens
Lonicera sempervirens
(coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
derives its name from the edible sweet nectar obtainable from its tubular flowers. The name Lonicera stems from Adam Lonicer , a Renaissance botanist
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , winter in the Northern Hemisphere lasts from the December solstice (typically December 21 UTC) to the March Equinox (typically March 20 UTC), while summer lasts from the June solstice (typically June 21 UTC) through to the September equinox (typically September 23 UTC). The dates vary each year due to the difference between the calendar year and the astronomical year . Its surface is 60.7% water, compared with 80.9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere , and it contains 67.3% of Earth's land
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Deciduous
_DECIDUOUS_ means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn ) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe. In a more general sense, _deciduous_ means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" or "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer , deciduous teeth , also known as baby teeth, in some mammals (including humans); or decidua , the uterine lining that sheds off after birth. CONTENTS * 1 Botany * 2 Function * 2.1 Deciduous woody plants * 3 Regions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BOTANYIn botany and horticulture , DECIDUOUS PLANTS , including trees , shrubs and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year. This process is called abscission . In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter—namely in temperate or polar climates . In other parts of the world, including tropical, subtropical, and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall
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Shrub
A SHRUB or BUSH is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs , shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height , and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall. Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender , periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses , are often termed "subshrubs ". CONTENTS * 1 Use in parks * 2 Botanical structure * 3 List of shrubs (bushes) * 4 References USE IN PARKSAn area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery . When clipped as topiary , suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning , in which hard cutting back to a "stool " results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their structure and character. Shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered broad-leaved plants , though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are also shrubby in structure. Species
Species
that grow into a shrubby habit may be either deciduous or evergreen . BOTANICAL STRUCTURE See also: Shrubland Scrub vegetation (with some cactus ) in Webb County , Texas
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