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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חסידות‎, hasidut, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
during the 18th century and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, and Britain . Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov
Baal Shem Tov
", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Judea
Coordinates : 31°41′56″N 35°18′23″E / 31.69889°N 35.30639°E / 31.69889; 35.30639 Map which shows Judea
Judea
(south of Samaria
Samaria
and the Galilee
Galilee
) JUDEA or JUDæA (/dʒuːˈdiː.ə/ ; from Hebrew
Hebrew
: יהודה‎‎, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Greek : Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; Latin : Iūdaea, Arabic : يهودا‎‎, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan
Canaan
-Israel
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Second Temple Period
The SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD in Jewish history
Jewish history
lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
existed. The sects of Pharisees
Pharisees
, Sadducees
Sadducees
, Essenes
Essenes
, and Zealots were formed during this period. The Second Temple period ended with the First Jewish–Roman War and the Roman destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple . After the death of the last Jewish Prophets of antiquity and still under Persian rule, the leadership of the Jewish people
Jewish people
was in the hands of five successive generations of zugot ("pairs of") leaders. They flourished first under the Persians (c. 539–c. 332 BCE), then under the Greeks (c. 332-167 BCE), then under an independent Hasmonean Kingdom (140-37 BCE), and then under the Romans (63 BCE-132 CE)
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Eruvin (Talmud)
ERUVIN (Hebrew : ערובין‎‎) is the second tractate in the Order of Moed , dealing with the various types of eruv s. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Main subjects * 2.1 Eruv Chatzeirot * 2.2 Eruv techumin * 2.3 Eruv tavshilin * 3 External links STRUCTUREThe tractace consists of ten chapters. Its Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
version is of 104 pages and its Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
version is of 65 pages
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Adam
ADAM (Hebrew : אָדָם‎‎; Greek : Αδάμ) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
for the first man created by God , but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human". Biblical Adam
Adam
(man, mankind) is created from adamah (earth), and Genesis 1-8 makes considerable play of the bond between them, for Adam
Adam
is estranged from the earth through his disobedience
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Rhineland
The RHINELAND (German : Rheinland, French : Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine River , chiefly its middle section . CONTENTS * 1 Term * 2 Geography * 3 History * 3.1 Pre-Roman * 3.2 Roman and Frankish conquests * 3.3 Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 3.4 French Revolution * 3.5 Prussian influence * 3.6 1918–1945 * 3.7 Post-1946 * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading TERM The Rhine Province (green) as of 1830 superimposed on modern (1945) borders. Historically, the RHINELANDS refers (physically speaking) to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the River Rhine in Central Europe , which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks
Franks
and became part of Frankish Austrasia
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Ashkenaz
ASHKENAZ in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is one of the descendants of Noah
Noah
. Ashkenaz
Ashkenaz
is the first son of Gomer , and a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations
Table of Nations
. In rabbinic literature , the kingdom of ASHKENAZ was first associated with the Scythian region , then later with the Slavic territories , and, from the 11th century onwards, with northern Europe and Germany. His name is likely related to the Assyrian Aškūza (Aškuzai, Iškuzai), a people who expelled the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, The association of the term by medieval Jewry with the geographical area centered on the Rhineland
Rhineland
led to the Jewish culture that developed in that area to be called Ashkenazi , the only form that the term is still used today
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Pardes (legend)
PARDES (Hebrew : פרדס orchard) is the subject of a Jewish
Jewish
aggadah ("legend") about four rabbis of the Mishnaic period (1st century CE) who visited the Orchard
Orchard
(that is, Paradise
Paradise
): Four men entered pardes — Ben Azzai , Ben Zoma , Acher (Elisha ben Abuyah ), and Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva . Ben Azzai looked and died; Ben Zoma looked and went mad; Acher destroyed the plants; Akiva entered in peace and departed in peace. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Account * 3 Exposition * 3.1 Interpretation in Kabbalah
Kabbalah
* 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe Hebrew word פַּרְדֵּס (pardes 'orchard') is of Persian origin (cf Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌⸱𐬛𐬀𐬉𐬰𐬀) and appears several times in the Bible . Persian is also the source of the word paradise, which entered English via Latin paradisus and Greek παράδεισος
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Modern Hebrew
MODERN HEBREW or ISRAELI HEBREW (Hebrew : עברית חדשה‎, ʿivrít ḥadašá, – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as HEBREW (עברית‎ Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew , a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic
Aramaic
beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is one of the two official languages of Israel, along with Arabic
Arabic
. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent, and non-fluent speakers
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Salomon Maimon
SALOMON MAIMON (/ˈmaɪmɒn/ ; German: ; Hebrew : שלמה מימון‎‎‎; 1753 – 22 November 1800) was a German-speaking philosopher, born of Jewish parentage in present-day Belarus
Belarus

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Jacob Ben Hayyim Zemah
JACOB BEN HAYYIM ZEMAH (17th century) was a Portuguese kabalist and physician. He received a medical training in his native country as a Marrano
Marrano
, but fled about 1619 to Safed
Safed
and devoted himself to the Talmud
Talmud
and the casuists ("poseḳim") until 1625; then he went to Damascus
Damascus
, where for eighteen years he studied kabbalah from the Zohar and the writings of Isaac Luria and Hayyim Vital . He finally settled at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and opened a yeshivah for the study of the Zohar
Zohar
and other kabbalistic works, David Conforte being for some time one of his pupils (Ḳore ha-Dorot, pp. 36a, 49a). Jacob Ẓemaḥ was one of the greatest kabbalists of his period and was a prolific author, his works including treatises of his own as well as compilations of the writings of Ḥayyim Vital
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

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Rabbi Meir
RABBI MEIR or RABBI MEIR BAAL HANES ( Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
the miracle maker) was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna
Mishna
. He was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the fourth generation (139-163). According to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Nero
Nero
who had converted to Judaism. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara
Gemara
. He is the third most frequently mentioned sage in the Mishnah. In the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Gittin p. 4a, it says that all anonymous Mishnas are attributed to Rabbi Meir. This rule was required because, following an unsuccessful attempt to force the resignation of the head of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
, Rabbi Meir's opinions were noted, but not in his name, rather as "Others say...". "Meir" may have been a sobriquet
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Western Ukraine
WESTERN UKRAINE or WEST UKRAINE (Ukrainian : Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine
Ukraine
. It includes several actual historical regions such Transcarpathia, Halychyna
Halychyna
including Pokuttia, most of Volhynia
Volhynia
, northern Bukovina
Bukovina
as well as western Podolia . Less often it includes territories of eastern Volhynia, Podolia, and small portion of northern Bessarabia (eastern part of Chernivtsi Oblast )
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Ashkenazi Pronunciation
ASHKENAZI HEBREW (Hebrew : הגייה אשכנזית‎ Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Yiddish
Yiddish
: אַשכּנזישע הבֿרה‎), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew