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Hasidic Judaism
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: חסידות‎, translit. hasidut, [χaˈsidus]; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem
Baal Shem
Tov", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism, and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Salomon Maimon
Salomon Maimon (/ˈmaɪmɒn/; German: [ˈmaɪmoːn]; Hebrew: שלמה מימון‎‎; 1753 – 22 November 1800) was a German-speaking philosopher, born of Jewish parentage in present-day Belarus.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Interest in Kabbalah 1.3 In Germany 1.4 In Silesia2 Thought2.1 Thing-in-itself 2.2 Application of the categories 2.3 Doctrine of differentials 2.4 Kant's comments3 Bibliography3.1 Collected works in German 3.2 English translations4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Salomon Maimon was born Shlomo ben Joshua[1] in the town of Zhukov Borok near Mir in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
(present-day Belarus), where his grandfather leased an estate from a Prince Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł. He was taught Torah
Torah
and Talmud, first by his father, and later by instructors in Mir
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Pardes (legend)
Pardes (Hebrew: פרדס orchard) is the subject of a Jewish
Jewish
aggadah ("legend") about four rabbis of the Mishnaic period (1st century CE) who visited the Orchard
Orchard
(that is, Paradise):Four men entered pardes — Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, Acher (Elisha ben Abuyah),[1] and Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva. Ben Azzai looked and died; Ben Zoma looked and went mad; Acher destroyed the plants; Akiva entered in peace and departed in peace.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Account 3 Exposition3.1 Interpretation in Kabbalah4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The Hebrew word פַּרְדֵּס (pardes 'orchard') is of Persian origin (cf Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌⸱𐬛𐬀𐬉𐬰𐬀) and appears several times in the Bible. Persian is also the source of the word paradise, which entered English via Latin paradisus and Greek παράδεισος
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Adam
Adam
Adam
(Hebrew: אָדָם‬, Modern ʼAdam, Tiberian ʼĀḏām; Arabic: آدَم‎, translit. ʾĀdam; Greek: Αδάμ, translit. Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
for t
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Eruvin (Talmud)
Eruvin (Hebrew: ערובין‎) is the second tractate in the Order of Moed, dealing with the various types of eruvs.Contents1 Structure 2 Main subjects2.1 Eruv
Eruv
Chatzeirot 2.2 Eruv
Eruv
techumin 2.3 Eruv
Eruv
tavshilin3 External linksStructure[edit] The tractace consists of ten chapters
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Second Temple Period
The Second Temple
Second Temple
period in Jewish history
Jewish history
lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE,[1] when the Second Temple
Second Temple
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
existed. The sects of Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots were formed during this period. The Second Temple
Second Temple
period ended with the First Jewish–Roman War and the Roman destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple. After the death of the last Jewish Prophets of antiquity and still under Persian rule, the leadership of the Jewish people
Jewish people
was in the hands of five successive generations of zugot ("pairs of") leaders. They flourished first under the Persians (c. 539 – c. 332 BCE), then under the Greeks (c
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Judea
Coordinates: 31°41′56″N 35°18′23″E / 31.69889°N 35.30639°E / 31.69889; 35.30639Map which shows Judea
Judea
(south of Samaria
Samaria
and the Galilee)A verdant green hill in Judea
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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18th Century
The 1 8th century
8th century
lasted from January 1, 1701
1701
to December 31, 1800
1800
in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740
1740
to 1768
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Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
Ukraine
or West Ukraine
Ukraine
(Ukrainian: Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine. It includes several actual historical regions such as Transcarpathia, Halychyna
Halychyna
including Pokuttia, Volhynia, northern Bukovina
Bukovina
as well as western Podolia. Less often it includes territories of eastern Volhynia, Podolia, and small portion of northern Bessarabia (eastern part of Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Oblast). Important cities are Buchach, Chernivtsi, Drohobych, Halych
Halych
(hence - Halychyna), Ivano-Frankivsk, Khotyn, Lutsk, Lviv, Mukacheve, Rivne, Ternopil, Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
and others
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Romanization Of Hebrew
Hebrew
Hebrew
uses the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew
is the use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words. For example, the Hebrew
Hebrew
name spelled יִשְׂרָאֵל‬ ("Israel") in the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
can be romanized as Yisrael or Yiśrāʼēl in the Latin alphabet. Romanization
Romanization
includes any use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words. Usually it is to identify a Hebrew
Hebrew
word in a non-Hebrew language that uses the Latin alphabet, such as German, Spanish, Turkish, and so on
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Rhineland
The Rhineland
Rhineland
(German: Rheinland, French: Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.Contents1 Term 2 Geography 3 History3.1 Pre-Roman 3.2 Roman and Frankish conquests 3.3 Holy Roman Empire 3.4 French Revolution 3.5 Prussian influence 3.6 1918–1945 3.7 Post-19464 See also 5 References 6 Further readingTerm[edit]The Rhine Province
Rhine Province
(green) as of 1830 superimposed on modern borders.Historically, the Rhinelands[1] refers (physically speaking) to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the Rhine
Rhine
in Central Europe, which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks
Salian Franks
and became part of Frankish Austrasia
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Ashkenaz
Ashkenaz
Ashkenaz
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is one of the descendants of Noah. Ashkenaz
Ashkenaz
is the first son of Gomer, and a Japhetic
Japhetic
patriarch in the Table of Nations
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Moses Ben Jacob Cordovero
Moses
Moses
(/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/)[2][Note 1] was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, and later in life became the leader of the Israelites
Israelites
and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah
Torah
from Heaven is traditionally attributed
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