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Harpsichord
A HARPSICHORD is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard , a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, this triggers a mechanism, which plucks one or more strings with a small quill. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals , muselar , and spinet . The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music
Baroque music
. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Chladni
ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH CHLADNI (German: ; 30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician . His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases . He also undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Chladni figures * 4 Musical instruments * 5 Meteorites * 6 Other work * 7 Death * 8 Bibliography * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY LIFEAlthough Chladni was born in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony , his family originated from Kremnica , then part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and today a mining town in central Slovakia
Slovakia

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Celcon
POLYOXYMETHYLENE (POM), also known as ACETAL, POLYACETAL and POLYFORMALDEHYDE, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability. As with many other synthetic polymers , it is produced by different chemical firms with slightly different formulas and sold variously by such names as DELRIN, CELCON, RAMTAL, DURACON, KEPITAL and HOSTAFORM. POM is characterized by its high strength, hardness and rigidity to −40 °C. POM is intrinsically opaque white, due to its high crystalline composition, but it is available in all colors. POM has a density of 1.410–1.420 g/cm3. Typical applications for injection-molded POM include high-performance engineering components such as small gear wheels, eyeglass frames, ball bearings, ski bindings, fasteners, guns, knife handles, and lock systems. The material is widely used in the automotive and consumer electronics industry
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Delrin
POLYOXYMETHYLENE (POM), also known as ACETAL, POLYACETAL and POLYFORMALDEHYDE, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability. As with many other synthetic polymers , it is produced by different chemical firms with slightly different formulas and sold variously by such names as DELRIN, CELCON, RAMTAL, DURACON, KEPITAL and HOSTAFORM. POM is characterized by its high strength, hardness and rigidity to −40 °C. POM is intrinsically opaque white, due to its high crystalline composition, but it is available in all colors. POM has a density of 1.410–1.420 g/cm3. Typical applications for injection-molded POM include high-performance engineering components such as small gear wheels, eyeglass frames, ball bearings, ski bindings, fasteners, guns, knife handles, and lock systems. The material is widely used in the automotive and consumer electronics industry
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Transposition (music)
In music TRANSPOSITION refers to the process, or operation , of moving a collection of notes (pitches or pitch classes ) up or down in pitch by a constant interval . The shifting of a melody , a harmonic progression or an entire musical piece to another key, while maintaining the same tone structure, i.e. the same succession of whole tones and semitones and remaining melodic intervals. — Musikalisches Lexicon, 879 (1865), Heinrich Christoph Koch (trans. Schuijer) For example, one might transpose an entire piece of music into another key . Similarly, one might transpose a tone row or an unordered collection of pitches such as a chord so that it begins on another pitch. The transposition of a set A by n semitones is designated by Tn(A), representing the addition (mod 12 ) of an integer n to each of the pitch class integers of the set A. Thus the set (A) consisting of 0–1–2 transposed by 5 semitones is 5–6–7 (T5(A)) since 0 + 5 = 5, 1 + 5 = 6, and 2 + 5 = 7
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Lady Standing At A Virginal
LADY STANDING AT A VIRGINAL is a genre painting created by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
in about 1670–1672, now in the National Gallery, London
London
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 See also * 3 Further reading * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONThe oil painting depicts a richly dressed woman playing a virginal in a home with a tiled floor, paintings on the wall and some of the locally manufactured Delftware blue and white tiles of a type that appear in other Vermeer works. The identities of the paintings on the wall are not certain, according to the National Gallery, but the landscape on the left may be by either Jan Wijnants
Jan Wijnants
or Allart van Everdingen
Allart van Everdingen
. The second painting, showing Cupid
Cupid
holding a card, is attributed to Caesar van Everdingen , Allart's brother
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Deutsches Museum
The DEUTSCHES MUSEUM (German Museum) (or DAS DEUTSCHE MUSEUM ) in Munich
Munich
, Germany is the world's largest museum of science and technology , with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology. It receives about 1.5 million visitors per year. The museum was founded on 28 June 1903, at a meeting of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) as an initiative of Oskar von Miller . Its official name is Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (English: German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology). It is the largest museum in Munich. For a period of time the museum was used to host pop and rock concerts including The Who , Jimi Hendrix and Elton John
Elton John

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Octave
In music , an OCTAVE (Latin : octavus: eighth) or PERFECT OCTAVE is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency . It is defined by ANSI
ANSI
as the unit of frequency level when the base of the logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems". The most important musical scales are typically written using eight notes, and the interval between the first and last notes is an octave. For example, the C major scale is typically written C D E F G A B C, the initial and final Cs being an octave apart. Two notes separated by an octave have the same letter name and are of the same pitch class . Three commonly cited examples of melodies featuring the perfect octave as their opening interval are "Singin\' in the Rain ", "Over the Rainbow ", and " Stranger on the Shore "
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Fir
See text FIRS (ABIES) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
. They are found through much of North and Central America , Europe
Europe
, Asia
Asia
, and North Africa , occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus Cedrus
Cedrus
(cedar). Douglas firs are not true firs, being of the genus Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga
. They are large trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m (33–262 ft) tall and trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m (1 ft 8 in–13 ft 1 in) when mature. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the unique attachment of their needle-like leaves and by their different cones
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Spruce
About 35; see text. A SPRUCE is a tree of the genus PICEA /paɪˈsiːə/ , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae , found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga ) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m (about 60–200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small, peg-like structure. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pegs (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth). Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species. They are also used by the larvae of gall adelgids (Adelges species)
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Munich
MUNICH (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ ; German: München, pronounced ( listen ), Bavarian : Minga ) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria , on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps
Alps
. Munich
Munich
is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg
Hamburg
, and the 12th biggest city of the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 6 million people. The city is a major centre of art, advanced technologies, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism in Germany
Germany
and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching #1 in Germany
Germany
and #4 worldwide according to the 2015 Mercer survey
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Museu De La Música De Barcelona
Nickname(s): Ciutat Comtal (ca )/Ciudad Condal (es ) "City of Counts" Cap i Casal de Catalunya (ca ) "Head and Hearth of Catalonia" Abbreviation(s): Barna, BCN Barcelona
Barcelona
Show map of Catalonia
Catalonia

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Musical Tuning
In music , there are two common meanings for TUNING: * Tuning practice , the act of tuning an instrument or voice. * Tuning systems , the various systems of pitches used to tune an instrument, and their theoretical bases.CONTENTS* 1 Tuning practice * 1.1 Open strings * 1.2 Altered tunings * 1.3 Tuning of unpitched percussion instruments * 2 Tuning systems * 2.1 Theoretical comparison * 2.2 Systems for the twelve-note chromatic scale * 2.3 Other scale systems * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading TUNING PRACTICETUNING is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones. Tuning is usually based on a fixed reference, such as A = 440 Hz. Out of tune refers to a pitch/tone that is either too high (sharp ) or too low (flat ) in relation to a given reference pitch
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Range (music)
In music , the RANGE of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. For a singing voice , the equivalent is vocal range . The range of a musical part is the distance between its lowest and highest note . The terms SOUNDING RANGE, WRITTEN RANGE, DESIGNATED RANGE, DURATION RANGE and DYNAMIC RANGE have specific meanings. The SOUNDING RANGE refers to the pitches produced by an instrument, while the WRITTEN RANGE refers to the compass (span) of notes written in the sheet music, where the part is sometimes transposed for convenience. A piccolo , for example, typically has a sounding range one octave higher than its written range. The DESIGNATED RANGE is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range. Timbre, dynamics, and duration ranges are interrelated and one may achieve registral range at the expense of timbre
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Jan Vermeer
JOHANNES, JAN or JOHAN VERMEER (/vərˈmɪər/ ; Dutch: ; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings. Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments . He is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes
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Traité De L'harmonie Réduite à Ses Principes Naturels
TRAITé DE L\'HARMONIE RéDUITE à SES PRINCIPES NATURELS (Treatise on Harmony reduced to its natural principles) is a music treatise written by Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
. It was first published in Paris in 1722 by Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard. The Treatise describes music and how to write it based on the tonal system used today in classical music . It uses the modern major and minor keys to teach readers what to do to achieve good sounding music based on the 12 tone music scale
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